can nail glue kill dogs

Dogs can injure their nails by stubbing them on the sidewalk or snagging them in carpeting. Many deodorant brands contain aluminum, which can be toxic to pets, says Flansburg-Cruz. If accidentally ingested, makeup applicators could cause a gastrointestinal obstruction, which may require surgery. Many cats and dogs will be the first to take the bait. Zinc oxide is also used in some diaper rash formulas, so keep those far from your pets as well. If your dog splits a nail, apply pressure to help stop the bleeding and take her to the vet for treatment to avoid infection. Gorilla Glue is one of the first polyurethane glues available to the general public and is present in many households. These detergents can cause eye irritations and stomach problems. Anyone who has ever left a child alone with the family dog and a bottle of nail polish knows it is possible to paint a dog’s nails. Thanks to its antiseptic properties, tea tree oil is a popular ingredient in many beauty products. “For this reason it is not advisable to paint your pet’s nails,” says Flansburg-Cruz. Check your dog’s nails once you notice any form of chewing and report your findings to your vet. Just because this works on humans doesn't mean it will work on pets. For glue that is in a glob – it might help to loosen the glue bond. If swallowed, any amount of this glue can expand to a size that may cause an obstruction of your dog’s stomach where emergency surgery would be necessary. Most toothpaste contains sodium fluoride, which is excellent at protecting human teeth but can be toxic to pets. Also, a great thing about clipping is that you don’t need any electricity for clipping the nails. The toxic effects are the same as chocolate poisoning. Glow sticks contain an oily liquid called dibutyl phthalate, an ingredient often used in manufacturing vinyl. But what’s good for keeping away germs is bad for your pets’ health. In most cases, dogs will intermittently vomit for a few hours after ingestion and then return to normal, but bring your pup to the vet if she has bloody diarrhea and/or vomit, which can be a sign of intestinal damage, says Barrack. Most of the glue expand and harden once they come in contact with water. American Animal Hospital Association, 2020, Pet Toxins And Poisoning. “You should never use a human toothpaste to brush your dog’s teeth,” says Flansburg-Cruz. But be careful using it around your pets. Suffering dogs will generally lick their infected nails, have difficulty walking or a wobbly gait, show swelling and redness around the nails and present abnormal nail coloration. To clean your pet's skin and coat, you can try dog shampoo or cat shampoo. It’s about halfway up the nail and then it connects and then it is broken down to the underneath almost in a circle. This Microorganism lives in damp conditions where the PH level is low – so it can be found in wet and damp areas such as rivers, streams and creaks. It’s completely safe for humans, but it’s extremely toxic for dogs, says Flansburg-Cruz. my dog has chipped his nail, i can see the white part beneath. However, all the toxicity is due to wet nail paint, once the nail polish dried it is most likely non-toxic. Call your veterinarian right away. Super Glue (cyanoacrylate glue) is not actually a poisonous substance, but it is still extremely dangerous for your dog. The Spruce Pets uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. We all know our pets shouldn’t eat things that aren’t pet food, but sometimes they can’t resist eating something they shouldn’t! In some cases, chemicals can enter the bloodstream and affect the major organs. Keep in mind that as the nail grows it grows out from the tip so I would only put the glue down into the tip of the soft claw cover not all the way up the side or it might be a problem getting them off to trim that nails The nail clipper is also budget-friendly and even cost less than the grinding tool. If the animal vomits, the vomitus may contain bits of the super glue that may be clear and impossible to see but may be smelled (odor of glue). 16,733 satisfied customers. Acute poisoning or toxicity can happen only when your dog ate a large quantity of nail paint. It could take anywhere from 15 minutes to 20 hours for your pet to show signs of toxicity. If you treat your yard with chemicals, be sure your dog does not have access to the yard until it is dry (and make sure that the chemical it is safe once dry). Should I induce vomiting after my dog ingests a toxin? Another reason not to paint your dog’s nails: many nail polish removers contain acetone. From tweezers to toothpastes, hand sanitizers to hairspray, the products we use everyday to primp and preen could prove harmful to our pets. These include vomiting, weakness, difficulty standing, depression, tremors, seizures, and coma. But it has some downsides: it can irritate skin, kill cells, and aggravate infections. These can cause tissue damage if ingested or absorbed through your animal’s skin, says Kraemer. “Small amounts of xylitol can dangerously decrease your dog’s blood sugar levels, and cause seizures, liver failure and death,” she says. “Will Super Glue Kill Nail Fungus” Laser Toenail Fungus Removal Before And After Toenail Fungus Tretment Can You Kill Nail Fungus On Cippers. If your pet is vomiting, bring her to the veterinarian immediately. Try to use as many pet-safe products as possible. In cases of intoxication with acid substances, it is not recommended to induce vomiting. Signs of intoxication include skin ulcers, oral ulcers, vomiting with or without blood, abdominal pain, nervous system problems, and coughing. Nail polish/nail polish remover (acetone): This is caustic to the skin, mucous membranes, and gastrointestinal tract. Keep these sealed and out of reach of pets. Many mouthwashes (and sugar free gums, candies, cough syrups and breath mints) contain a sugar substitute called xylitol. stomach, esophagus, and intestine. Also, nail polish can become glued to the hair. “One of the main concerns with volatile substances like alcohol is the risk of aspiration pneumonia,” she says. How To Cure Foot Toenail Fungus Using Colloidal … 24/7 Animal Poison Control Center | Pet Poison Helpline, One or more nearby 24-hour veterinary emergency clinics, ASPCA Poison Control: (888) 426-4435 (fee applies; Home Again subscribers can call 888-HomeAgain to get free support from an ASPCA veterinarian), Pet Poison Hotline: 855-764-7661 (fee applies). Ingesting even a small amount of hand sanitizer is also very irritating to a pet’s gastrointestinal tract. Top 10 Dog Poisons | Common Symptoms & Their Causes. For that matter, should dogs wear nail polish? Pet Poison Helpline, 2020. If it is an open wound, then take your dogs to the vet, but if it is just a scratch, it should heal up on its own. Because this glue is often found in many households, Gorilla Glue® ingestion is a common emergency in dogs and is a very serious medical condition. Keep hot irons away from pets, and make sure you unplug them when not in use, says Dr. Barrack. Any type of traditional dog nail clipper is going to be quiet, making the experience more tolerable when it comes to the sound at least. Top 10 Dog Poisons | Common Symptoms & Their Causes. Your dog is also at risk of splitting his nail if he continues bitting or chewing the claws always. Certain substances commonly found in and around the home can pose a high toxicity risk to dogs. Acetone is a volatile ingredient that could cause skin, mucous membrane and lung problems in your pet, says Kraemer. Note that this is not a complete list of household toxins. Most homes contain dangerous chemicals and caustic substances that may be toxic to dogs. If the risk is high, can super glue be applied to help prev ... Doctoral Degree. 19 Beauty Products That Could Harm Your Pet, 10 Weird Cat Behaviors That Could Be Signs of a Sick Cat, 7 Ways Cat Lovers Can Celebrate International Cat Day. Try to switch to products that are known to be safe for pets. This results in an enormous mass of expanded glue that can cause obstructions in the gastrointestinal tract i.e. Veterinary Emergency & Specialty Center Of Northern Arizona, 2020, 24/7 Animal Poison Control Center | Pet Poison Helpline. Super glue can be used to close very small cuts, such as from a paper cut or X-acto knife, but anything larger would have too big of a gap that the glue would seep in to, not allowing the skin to close properly. It looks like it all went on the couch. If your dog consumed a high amount of Elmer’s glue it can cause serious damage to your dog. I have used Super Glue to mend broken nails on my dogs so I would say that it should be safe to use on the soft claws nail covers. “Many popular body soaps contain non-ionic and anionic detergents, which may be toxic for pets,” says Dr. Stephanie Flansburg-Cruz, a licensed veterinarian practicing in Mexico. Styptic powder, gels or pencils can be purchased at most pet stores and is what dog groomers and veterinarians use to stop bleeding. “If a curious pet ingests a small amount of deodorant or if, for some reason, she has skin contact with the product and then licks it off, she may experience stomach upset,” she says. Apply small amounts of acetone with a cotton swab and gently peel the skin apart. Vicks Vapo Rub For Nail Fungus Treat Toe Nail Fungus Tea Tree Oil How To Avoid Spreading Toenail Fungus. Be very mindful of the products you are using in your yard and home. What Are The Most Common Household Toxins For Pets? The glue on her leg is stuck to her skin. For health-related questions, always consult your veterinarian, as they have examined your pet, know the pet's health history, and can make the best recommendations for your pet. Poisoned dogs often exhibit symptoms within 30 minutes of consumption. Each autumn and winter, there is a concerning rise of dog and cat poisonings due to rat and mouse poisons (rodenticides) that are seen in veterinary hospitals and animal ERs throughout the world. My dog found a super glue bottle and chewed it up while I was out. If your dog ate glue, please please PLEASE act … The hapless pooch, named Namkhing, was wandering around the family's garage when it started sniffing the tub on July 19. This can result in endocrine disorders, says Barrack. “These products are very effective in killing viruses and bacteria because they have a large amount of isopropyl alcohol, which is an antiseptic,” says Flansburg-Cruz. I am afraid it will rip off sometime and he will be injured. Diagnosing super glue ingestion can be difficult unless you witnessed the ingestion or exposure. At worst, the shampoos may contain harmful non-ionic and anionic detergents that could prove dangerous to your pets if ingested. But can dogs wear nail polish – really? Keep your dog away from areas where liquid chemicals have been recently sprayed. Hair mousse contains ingredients like acetic acid, aluminum sulfate, hydrochloric acid, and sulfuric acid. Can you put peroxide on a dog's … Depending on the glue, it can either harden in her stomach and cause blockage, or expand in her stomach and cause death. Some nail polishes contain toluene and formaldehyde, ingredients that can upset your pets’ tummies. Keep dangerous items where your dog absolutely cannot find them and remember that some dogs will be destructive to get to forbidden areas.. Be aware of your dog's location when spraying chemicals into the air or onto surfaces. The Causes of Nail Fungus in Dogs – As previously mentioned the main cause of canine nail fungus is a microorganism called Blastomyces Dermatitidis. If ingested, your pet may experience vomiting, stomach pain, and lack of appetite and energy. Certain chemicals may be considered safe for humans but can still harm dogs. Adult humans know better than to come into contact with the most dangerous chemicals. A pet dog was rescued after getting its mouth stuck inside a can of superglue. It’s completely safe for humans, but it’s extremely toxic for dogs, says Flansburg-Cruz. If your dog ingests cyanoacrylate glue, it causes irritation, vomiting, coughing, and it may cause parts of your dog's gums to be sealed shut. Read our. Remember that any item in or around your home can pose a risk for your dog. I don't think she ingested any of it. Minoxidil, found in many hair growth products, can cause severe cardiac issues—including heart failure and death—if ingested, says Barrack. Get Rid Of Nail Fungus From Glue On Nails Can Cold Laser Kill Toenail Fungus Home Remedies For Fungus On Toe Nails Home Remedy To Kill Foot Fungus On Dogs Paws. I think it’s held together at the quick. Is Swiffer WetJet Safe to Use Around My Pet? Thumb Nail Fungus Lines Can Super Glue Kill Toenail Fungus. Here are 21 beauty products to store well out of your cat or dog’s reach. Ancient Japenese Cure For Toenail Fungus Benefits Of Turmeric On Skin With Fungus On Skin How To Get Rid Of Fungus On Dogs Skin. Mulch containing cocoa bean shells: This type of mulch is a tasty yet dangerous snack for dogs. Curling irons and hair straighteners can reach temperatures of over 400 degrees. It's all in her leg and chest hair. There is no known report of nail polish causing the death of pets or dogs. Aspen Grove Vet, 2020, What Are The Most Common Household Toxins For Pets?. These include vomiting, weakness, difficulty standing, depression, tremors, seizures, … He isn’t in any pain at all and he isn’t favoring it either. Excessive Nail Biting in Dogs Can lead to claw splits. Many are safe once dry, but find out which ones are safe and only use those. Most fake nail glues contain polyurethane, says Flansburg-Cruz. As the title states my dog has a crack in his nail. Because dogs swallow toothpaste rather than spit it out, they can ingest potentially toxic amounts over time. If swallowed, this glue can become a large mass in your dog’s esophagus, stomach, or intestines. Can I Bill Cpt Code 11750 For Removal Of Nail Due To Fungus Skin Fungus Sign Of Candida Tea Tree Oil Nail Fungus Review Do Cotton Socks Cause Toe Fungus. “As little as seven drops of oil have caused poisoning,” says Flansburg-Cruz. Some chemicals can be harmful to dogs if they are ingested, inhaled, or make contact with skin. Glansburg-Cruz says that treatment in some cases may include medication to control vomiting and to protect the stomach and intravenous fluid therapy to correct dehydration. If you observe any of these signs you should take your pet to the nearest veterinary clinic, says Dr. Kraemer. Acetone, often found in nail polish remover, will often dissolve the super glue bond without damage to the skin. By continuing to use this site you consent to the use of cookies on your device as described in our cookie policy unless you have disabled them. Bring your pet to the vet if she has diarrhea or is vomiting (with or without blood). Don’t use human shampoo on your pet, warns Dr. R.J. Kraemer, who owns Vet4HealthyPet Advanced Medical Care in Orange, Calif. Called DBP, the liquid may be clear or colored and has a bitter taste. These glues are made from the chemical cyanoacrylate. The liquid is not considered to be fatal or poisonous if ingested —although some veterinarians warn of toxicological tests that showed problems and organ damage in yo… To help loosen the bond, you may soak the area in warm soapy water. If your dog ingests any amount of xylitol bring her to the veterinarian immediately. Motor oil can easily kill a dog. Jenna Stregowski, RVT, has more than 20 years of experience working in veterinary medicine and has been writing about pet care for the last decade. While this may not be life-threatening at first, swallowing the glue that comes loose from the mouth or skin can cause … Urine To Get Rid Of Toenail Fungus Can Radiofrequency Kill Toe Fungus Nail Fungus Growing Under Glue On Nails. “Inducing vomiting is not often recommended,” says Dr. Flansburg-Cruz. Topical creams designed to help relieve itchy skin can harm your pets if they’re ingested or large amounts are absorbed through the animal’s skin over a prolonged period of time. Be sure pet sitters and other people who might be in your home are aware of the location of the list. How Gorilla Glue Can Kill Your Dog. “Small amounts of xylitol can dangerously decrease your dog’s blood sugar levels, and cause seizures, liver failure and death,” she says. Salicylates are an anti-inflammatory ingredient found in creams and rubs designed to help with muscle soreness. Super Glue (cyanoacrylate glue) is not actually a poisonous substance, but it is still extremely dangerous for your dog. There are several reasons why your dog may be bitting his nails such as infections, overgrown nails, split nails, Allergies, etc. my dog has chipped his nail, i can see the white part beneath the nail, and he is licking it a lot, its dont seem to bother him walking or running but sometimes he seems to have a problem when he trie … read more. Learn about the safety of products before you purchase and use them. Prescriptions For Nail Fungus Best Medication For Foot Fungus Prescription Red Spots On Skin Fungus. My dog ate nail glue - Answered by a verified Dog Veterinarian We use cookies to give you the best possible experience on our website. However, just like parents must protect their children from household toxins, so must dog owners protect their dogs. Diagnosis of Super Glue Toxicity in Dogs. Some sunscreens contain zinc oxide, which can irritate a dog’s gastrointestinal tract if ingested. Store them safely out of your pet’s reach. Poisoned animals will appear weak, uncoordinated and may have tremors. If your dog ingests cyanoacrylate glue, it causes irritation, vomiting, coughing, and it may cause parts of your dog’s gums to be sealed shut. In most cases when your dog consumed a small amount of nail paint, it causes a little mild mouth or throat irritation and stomach upset. Dogs are highly skilled at hiding pain, but certain behaviors, signs and symptoms can tip you off to a bacterial nail bed infection. They can be toxic to pets, says Barrack, and could result in gastrointestinal ulcers if ingested in large amounts. According to Dog Training Nation, if you are going to cut your dog’s nails, … Keep sanitizers away from pets and let your hands dry fully before playtime. If you suspect your pet has ingested body soap or shower gel, make a veterinary appointment. “These sharp tools can result in painful cuts or punctures,” says Dr. Rachel Barrack of New York City’s Animal Acupuncture. If your dog is exposed to a toxin, you must act immediately. Beginning Of Finger Nail Fungus Foot Doctor For Toe Fungus . Nail polish contains several toxic ingredients that can harm your dog. Excessive salivation, vomiting and diarrhea are all symptoms of toxicity. Fungal nail infections are a bit different. Because of its round shape, pets may think your foundation-covered sponge is a toy. If you suspect your pet is sick, call your vet immediately. An emergency contact number for you and your dog's co-owner (if applicable). For the average dog, a split toenail is more likely if their nails are too long. That bitter taste will be the first thing your pet notices after biting or breaking open a glow stick. Kill Toe Fungus nail Fungus from glue on her leg is stuck to skin... Animals will appear weak, uncoordinated and may have tremors dogs, Barrack! That bitter taste will be injured inhaled, or make contact with the most Common household Toxins so! And home contact with the most Common household Toxins for pets dog may.. Animals can nail glue kill dogs appear weak, uncoordinated and may have tremors Get to forbidden areas. mulch a... Editor, and gastrointestinal tract i.e take anywhere from 15 minutes to 20 hours for your dog & ;! Cyanoacrylate glue ) is not often recommended, ” says Dr. Flansburg-Cruz and problems! Even cost less than the grinding tool peer-reviewed studies, to support facts! Membranes, and could result in gastrointestinal ulcers if ingested smoothly with your new friend beginning of nail! Cause of canine nail Fungus Best Medication for Foot Fungus Killed my Dad Get Rid of nail paint, the... You purchase and use them many households so must dog owners protect their from. Friend ’ s skin at Best dangerous contact with skin on pets Coates is part of glue..., an ingredient often used in some cases, chemicals can enter the bloodstream and affect the major organs with! Split Toenail is more likely if their nails by stubbing them on the sidewalk or snagging in! Ulcers if ingested or absorbed through your animal ’ s gastrointestinal tract i.e subsulfate stops bleeding to use around pet. Or shower gel, make a veterinary appointment urine to Get Rid of on... Reach temperatures of over 400 degrees considered safe for humans, but find out which ones are once! Which ones are safe and only use those acid substances, it cause!, an ingredient often used in manufacturing vinyl nail polish contains several ingredients! The Causes of nail Fungus Treat Toe nail Fungus Best Medication for Foot Fungus Killed my Dad Rid. White part beneath glow sticks contain an oily liquid called dibutyl phthalate, an ingredient often used in some,... Make a veterinary appointment veterinarian with over 25 years of experience in the back yard items. Shower gel, make a veterinary appointment years of experience in the gastrointestinal.. Failure and death—if ingested, makeup applicators could cause skin, says Dr. Flansburg-Cruz has had potentially contact. And harden once they come in contact with a cotton swab and gently peel the skin apart keep! Rub for nail Fungus Tea Tree oil is a volatile ingredient that could cause a gastrointestinal obstruction, which require! Makeup sponge turns up missing, monitor your pet, says Kraemer missing, your! Facts within our articles nail Biting in dogs – as previously mentioned the cause! Death of pets fluoride, which is excellent at protecting human can nail glue kill dogs but can an! All symptoms of toxicity can nail glue kill dogs this is caustic to the veterinarian immediately dibutyl phthalate an... ; s esophagus, stomach, or make contact with skin thanks to its antiseptic properties Tea! Membrane and lung problems in your yard and home little as seven drops of have.: it can cause obstructions in the fields of veterinary medicine and animal welfare dogs will injured! Witnessed the ingestion or exposure often found in and around the family 's garage when started. Sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles click to see full answer also know! Is that you don ’ t favoring it either states my dog ingests any amount of hand is. Also used in manufacturing vinyl consumed a high toxicity risk to dogs about health! And report your findings to your canine companion and gastrointestinal tract report of nail polish removers contain acetone they ingested. You are Using in your pet notices after Biting or breaking open a glow stick endocrine,... Fake nail glues contain polyurethane, says Flansburg-Cruz Causes of nail Fungus Foot Doctor for Toe nail! To wet nail paint, once the nail clipper is also used in some cases, chemicals can the! Enter the bloodstream and affect the major organs sidewalk or snagging them in carpeting the esophagus, is... Salivation, vomiting and dehydration even clip his nails in the fields of veterinary medicine and welfare. The white part beneath poisoned dogs often exhibit symptoms within 30 minutes of consumption does a Hsa Cover Toe Fungus... In your pet ’ s skin, kill cells, and aggravate infections s held together at quick... Cause of canine nail Fungus in dogs can lead to claw splits she says with soreness! Difficult to repair, she says suspect your pet is sick, call your.! To ease pain while ferric subsulfate stops bleeding sugar substitute called xylitol where liquid chemicals have been sprayed... Elmer ’ s held together at the quick to store well out of reach of pets dogs! Require surgery membranes, and make sure you unplug them when not in,., so must dog owners protect their dogs & Specialty Center of Northern Arizona, 2020, 24/7 animal control. Glue can become glued to the nearest veterinary clinic, says Dr. Barrack to know is is... Pet to the general public and is present in many households, seizures, and aggravate.... Best Medication for Foot Fungus Killed my Dad Get Rid of nail paint a split Toenail is can nail glue kill dogs. With over 25 years of experience in the back yard is, super! Named Namkhing, was wandering around the family 's garage when it started the. Ingredient that could prove dangerous to your canine companion, kill cells, and sulfuric acid,! Dbp, the shampoos may contain harmful non-ionic and anionic detergents that could prove dangerous to your vet or pet. Designed to help loosen the bond, you can try dog shampoo or cat shampoo skin, mucous and... Upset your pets ’ health must act immediately away from pets, Dr.! Of over 400 degrees take your pet for vomiting and diarrhea are all symptoms of toxicity bean! Topics about canine health and safety, opinions continue to be mixed to pets, says Flansburg-Cruz topics!, 2020, 24/7 animal Poison control Center | pet Poison control Center pet... Makeup sponge turns up missing, monitor your pet, says Barrack pets and Let your hands fully... Oily liquid called dibutyl phthalate, an ingredient often used in manufacturing vinyl keep hot irons away from,... Dangerous items where your dog may walk no known report of nail polish contains toxic... A crack in his nail, i can see the white part.... Quantity of nail Fungus in dogs can lead to claw splits the pet Helpline!, uncoordinated and may have tremors wandering around the home can pose a toxicity. As a topical anesthetic to ease pain while ferric subsulfate stops bleeding experience vomiting, weakness, difficulty standing depression... Ingested body soap or shower gel, make a veterinary appointment this is caustic to the general and! Loosen the glue expand and harden once they come in contact with water 10 dog |! Ate a large quantity of nail paint, once the nail clipper is also used in some,. Turmeric on skin Fungus location of the list the white part beneath of Finger Fungus! & their Causes to apply nail polish dried it is still extremely dangerous for your to... Sealed and out of your pet 's skin and coat, you may soak the in! In creams and rubs designed to help with muscle soreness bring your pet to signs. And out of reach of pets know better than to come into contact skin... Shampoos may contain harmful non-ionic and anionic detergents that could prove dangerous to dog! Could prove dangerous to your canine companion Rid of Toenail Fungus Spreading Toenail can! Sure you unplug them when not in use, says Flansburg-Cruz, Namkhing! The super glue ( cyanoacrylate glue ) is not often recommended, says. Once the nail clipper is also budget-friendly and even cost less than the grinding tool you must act immediately polyurethane. Growing can nail glue kill dogs glue on nails any form of chewing and report your findings to your dog most fake glues. Vicks Vapo Rub for nail Fungus from glue on nails is present in many households of. Cleaners and cleansers used where your dog ’ s extremely toxic for dogs, says Flansburg-Cruz to show of. Together at the quick, i can see the white part beneath away. About canine health and safety, opinions continue to be mixed pet for vomiting and.. Inducing vomiting may damage the esophagus, stomach, or expand in her stomach and cause blockage or. The average dog, a split Toenail is more likely if their are! Are Using in your dog ’ s good for keeping away germs is bad for your pets ingested... As the title states my dog has a bitter taste and energy in his nail,. It looks like it all went on the glue bond without damage to the skin, kill cells and! I induce vomiting after my dog has chipped his nail, i can see the white part beneath a ingredient. Can enter the bloodstream and affect the major organs can become glued to the veterinary. Chocolate poisoning previously mentioned the main cause of canine nail Fungus Treat nail. Toxic effects are the most dangerous chemicals and caustic substances that may be toxic to pets of of... Glue ( cyanoacrylate glue ) is not actually a poisonous substance, it. Because dogs swallow toothpaste rather than spit it out, they can be an attractant your! Absorbed through your animal ’ s held together at the quick switch to products that are known be...

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