The Extreme Programming Pocket Guidecovers … This becomes expensive because of −. Reduces the amount of time developers spend reformatting other peoples’ code. Sustainable pace is to be set (40-hour week and no overtime for more than one week) and managed. A common set of this knowledge and these skills that enables them to communicate effectively. All codes must pass all unit tests before it is released. Pro .NET 2.0 Extreme Programming. These four basic activities need to be structured in the light of the Extreme Programming principles. Most languages have a xUnit framework (e.g., nUnit, jUnit). The other XP practices support pair programming in the following way −. Extreme Programming (XP) is a radical new approach to software development that has been accepted quickly because its core practices--the need for constant testing, programming in pairs, … Sustainable Pace ensures the human contribution to the success of the project, considering the facts that −. Developers determine the effort and duration (estimates) required for implementation of the stories. In Extreme Programming. The working product will not be available till the end of development and hence nobody will have a clue on whether the right thing is being built though it is being developed rightly. Project management and continuous integration. With Coding Standards, you will not have conflicts on the code. Long Term Jobless? To assume simplicity is to treat every problem as if it can be solved with simplicity. They are −. This results in cost overruns fixing defects after delivery. Time is not wasted adding superfluous functionality, Refactoring and collective ownership is made possible. Refactoring allows you to decide on what tests are necessary. As a result, information regarding the principles and practices of Extreme Programming was shared through discussions across WikiWikiWeb, and different contributors came up with unique ideas which resulted in spin-off agile methodologies. Mix-and-match is allowed, but only when you are using complimentary features and you are not compromising on the values of the features being used. and scrum focusing on the fixed scope for sprints, burn-down charts, etc. Metaphor − The main intention of using metaphor is to use domain specific names throughout development and that enables the customer also to actively participate in the development. Never incorporate any independent work without the review by the partner. Concise and easy to use, this handy pocket guide to XP is a must-have quick reference for anyone implementing a test … Planning is done during release planning and iteration planning. The reasons being −. The tests are automated so that they become a part of the system and can be continuously run to ensure the working of the system. University of Utah conducted experiments on pair programming. Immediate responsiveness to the customer’s changing requirements. Integration testing is important as integrate and test several times a day. People learn significantly more about the system and about software development. Getting feedback about the actual time taken. Test Driven Development is being considered as the most innovative Extreme Programming practice. In this chapter, we will understand the Extreme Programming activities and artifacts. Release planning creates the release schedule. If you believe that the future is uncertain and you can quickly enhance the design, then do not put any functionality on speculation. Extreme Programming is found to be advantageous when applied in −, Extreme Programming is found to be disadvantageous when −. Suggested activities are checking email, making a phone call, browsing the web, or taking a Snack-break. Taking responsibility of the completion of the work. Story − The customer can define new features by describing these feature in a story. Participate with the team while they estimate in order to provide feedback on how reality conformed to their prior estimates, both at team level and individual level that eventually help them to come up with better estimates next time. The game that we refer to in the Extreme Programming is Planning Game. The Extreme Programming Pocket Guide covers Xp assumptions, principles, events, artifacts, roles, and resources, and more. On the other hand, a person who always agrees with the partner so as not to create tension also minimizes the benefits of collaborative work. Effort and duration estimates for the stories that will be used in release planning −. To get a simple design, eliminate any design element that you can, without violating the first three rules. They ensure the tasks for the iteration are complete. Scrum, by its definition, again as we stated earlier, is effective in certain situations, but has its own shortcomings as with any other development methodologies. Planning game ensures to take the feedback from the customer after testing to plan for the next release. Differences between Extreme Programming … The proponents of Extreme Programming believe that if a few tests can eliminate flaws in the program, then frequent testing can determine more defects to give better results. However, it is recommended to do the scaling by building recursive teams. Iteration − The project will be planned with iterations. 4. In this chapter, you will understand the Extreme Programming practices in detail and the advantages of each of these practices. Extreme Programming by itself is not suitable for implementation. Active listening is significant in this phase. The team needs to fit the culture in which it will operate. The businessperson is in a position to understand how much is not enough and how much is too much. Continuous testing helps the developers and the customer to decide what is required immediately. Product life cycle activities provide inputs for release cycles. A manager may not ask a developer the right question, and project progress is misreported. Communicating with others on a regular basis is the key for leading a balanced life. Acceptance tests provide non-ambiguous specifications of functional requirements. Eliminates defects early, thus reducing costs (pair programming), Integration for every set of changes and testing. Story re-estimation may cause iteration changes or recovery. Extreme Programming … In business, ‘agile’ is used for describing ways of planning and doing work wherein it is understood that making changes as needed is an important part of the job. Initially, even system-wide integration was also encouraged on a regular basis, but later their frequency was reduced based on the stability of the overall system interfaces. Unless the team agrees on expectations there will not be commitment and accountability. They switch these roles periodically, even when one of them is significantly more experienced than the other, to ensure equal participation. Extreme Programming is based on the following values −. Let us have a look at the shortcomings of the Waterfall methodology −. It can take too much time to write the tests. In Scrum, projects are broken down into releases and time-boxed short sprints. Extreme Programming emphasizes on the limited number of hours of work per week for every team members, based on their sustainability, to a maximum of 45 hours a week. Refactoring helps the pair to discuss and make combined decisions in making the system simple. Uses the customer’s terminology without technical jargon. The developers form pairs, which can be a continuous and dynamic activity. What's on SHOWTIME? You certainly cannot make new releases of the system on cycles ranging from daily to every couple of months. Simple design and refactoring allows you to stay focused and complete on time. Pairs consistently implemented the same functionality produced by individuals in fewer lines of code. Some of the common problems are −. In Extreme Programming, feedback is accomplished at different levels, to the required and sufficient detail. Simple Design − A simple design is efficient, easy to build and maintain. A simple way to do this is to have a machine dedicated to integration. The customer provides a shortlist of high-value requirements for the system. On-line customer is also involved in the communication on a continuous basis. A partner should never blame the other partner for any problems or defects. The customer writes one or more automated acceptance tests for a feature, to ensure that the system implements the desired features correctly. In lines with Java, .Net has NAnt, NUnit, CruiseControl.NET. It is the detailed (not the only) design activity with multiple tight feedback loops through effective implementation, testing and refactoring continuously. System returning constant and consistent value to the customer. Development does not stop with a sprint, and it should be aiming at long term objectives. The following table gives the clarifications of the misconceptions that exist. Making decisions that are required time to time on the extent of functionality that is required. What are some test cases that may not work yet? The result is a system that is capable of accepting change. If someone works for more time than that, it is considered as overtime. XP employs a coach whose job is to notice when the people are not communicating and reintroduce them. The team is expected to self-organize. After they have added a feature, the developers ask if they now can see how to make the code simpler, while still running all of the tests. Should only provide enough detail to make an estimate of how long the story will take to implement. Customers tell the developers what features they are interested in so that the developers can focus only on those features. The customers review the system to check how best it can contribute, and give feedback in days or weeks instead of months or years. As a type of agile software … Automated building and continuous integration. Schedule overruns of the earlier stages of development are compensated by overlooking the test requirements to ensure timely deliveries. Iteration results may cause changes to release plan. Code is integrated and tested many times a day, one set of changes at a time. The essential Extreme Programming artifacts are −, Customer and developer communication records, The User story cards have the following features −. The values are important, but they are vague, in the sense that it may not be possible to decide if something is valuable. Monitoring and tracking at the task level and at the resource level. If the rules are not followed, the developers will tend to have different sets of coding practices, the code becomes inconsistent over time and it becomes impossible to say who on the team wrote what code. Stories are blown into tasks in task cards. Thus, you can start development with a simple plan, and continually refine it as you go along. Consistent with the “once and only once” rule (no duplicate code). The metaphor consists of domain specific elements and shows their interconnectivity. For favorable idea exchange, there should be some healthy disagreement/debate when required. This chapter gives an overview of Extreme Programming. Implement it more quickly and with better quality. More and better information is learned as the development progresses based on the actual performance. Any negative thoughts in this aspect are to be put in trash can. Business‘agililty’ means that a company is always in a position to take account of the market changes. Lists for project hierarchy and manage backlogs with ease. The Manager is Accountable for these Responsibilities. The Planning Game has the following advantages −, Reduction in time, wasted on useless features, Greater customer appreciation of the cost of a feature, You should put a simple system into production quickly, and then release new versions in very short cycles. The advantages of having an onsite customer are −. Face-to-Face communication is preferred and is achieved with pair programming and a customer representative is always onsite. Continuous Testing with test-first approach will be adapted. Continuous refactoring allows you to refine your understanding of what the metaphor means in implementation. Integrating one set of changes at a time helps in knowing who should fix a test that fails. Extreme Programming is a hugely popular (although not as popular as Scrum) methodology focused on meeting changing client requirements. Then the tasks are balanced out among the developers. According to Cambridge online dictionary- A Metaphor is an expression, often found in literature that describes a person or object by referring to something that is considered to have similar characteristics to that person or object. Management is forced to find real solutions. Inability to accommodate the inevitable domain changes and technology changes within the budget. In the following sections, you get an understanding of these learnings. However, it needs to be ensured that the minimum possible duration is chosen. Extreme Programming employs a coach whose job is noticing when people are not communicating and reintroduce them. Short (frequent small) releases are to be planned. Estimates − How long will a feature take to implement? Otherwise, you cannot claim that you are using Extreme Programming. Testing starts only after coding is complete and testing is considered as a tester’s responsibility though the tester is not involved in development. However, if the team is new to Extreme Programming, the role of a coach is crucial. Ensure that your partner stays focused and on-task. The project ends up with multiple people understanding each piece of the system. Within that constraint, they still tend to move business priorities earlier in the development, reducing the chance that important stories will have to be dropped towards the end of the development of a release due to time constraints. As the methodology is forward facing in one direction, feedback from any phase cannot be taken back into any of the earlier phases, though more clarity is obtained regarding the end product. With Refactoring, you maintain the system simple so that everyone understands it. Prompts the developers to proactively improve the product as a whole, Increases the developer knowledge of the system. When necessary, the two programmers brainstorm on any challenging problem. With pair programming, you will have quick concrete feedback from the implemented code and tests about whether the metaphor is working fine. The developers Sign-up for the tasks and begin development episodes to implement the stories. Programmers appreciate each other’s project input, deliver software quickly because they can distinguish relevant tasks from unnecessary ones. Communication supports courage because it opens the possibility for more high-risk, high-reward experiments. Programmers also benefit from overhearing other conversations to which they can have vital contributions. With refactoring, there are smaller pieces, reducing the chance of conflicts. The customers write tests to verify that the features are implemented. You have the right to ask for and receive help from peers, superiors, and customers. Integrating and testing the whole system several times a day. The project goals are a shared responsibility and the development is an ongoing conversation across the whole team. According to Laurie A. Williams and Robert R. Kessler, in their book, ‘All I Really Need to Know about Pair Programming I Learned in Kindergarten’, it is well explained of how to nurture the skills that we all have learnt in Kindergarten to establish team cohesion, in general and pair programming in particular. In this, the customer is not involved. In Mid-80s, Kent Beck and Ward Cunningham initiated Pair Programming at Tektronix. Pairs spent 15% more time on the program than individuals. Resistance to the changes at a later stage of development. The methodology of Extreme Programming encourages you and your team to follow some practices to create products in an efficient, solution-oriented and maintainable way. Writing required stories to the necessary and sufficient detail. It means that the two Roles A and B may exchange their places, or they may pair up with other team members. He also wrote a series of books on Extreme Programming and shared his ideas and concepts with a broader audience. Sustainable pace is ensured by balancing the load factor across the team, considering 40-hour week. The planning game helps you work on the most valuable stories, so even a small system will have business value. Several Agile methodologies came into existence, of which Scrum has become more popular and is being widely used. During the break, it is best to disconnect from the task and approach it with a freshness when restarting. Agility in Agile Software Development focuses on the culture of the whole team with multi-discipline, cross-functional teams that are empowered and selforganizing. It encourages documenting what is required, when it is required and only to the required and sufficient Detail. Extreme Programming solves the following problems often faced in the software development projects −. The implementation of the tasks is done. Detailed Scheduling − Within a release, which stories should be done first? In fact, this is true for any process that you take up. It’s assumed that system development would only require activities such as coding, testing and listening to be performed well to result in a working system which may not always be right. An iteration is a period of 1 to 3 weeks in which a number of stories will be implemented. Having a “my way or the highway” attitude can prevent the programmer from considering other’s ideas. The iteration and release reviews provide overall status and points for process adjustment and improvement. The customer and developers discuss the story to elaborate on the details. Composition of releases − How much or how little needs to be done before the business is better off with the software than without it? Offer − Contains the stories that a customer wants in this project. Testing is considered to be the gateway to check for defects before delivery. No wastage of time and resources on what may not be necessary. In Extreme Programming, the major responsibilities of the manager are −. A dedicated integration workstation is provided for the entire team. Micro-management should be avoided, while ensuring availability as and when required, Extreme Programming is an Agile process because it −, Emphasizes plenty of communication and feedback −, Within the team (pair programming, collective code ownership, simple design), With the customer (on-site customer and acceptance testing), For release planning (with customer and developers participating in estimation). These rules are necessary in Extreme Programming because all the developers −. Include a real, live user on the team, available full-time to answer the questions, resolve disputes and set small-scale priorities. Having a partner to review design and coding continuously and objectively is a very beneficial aspect of pair programming. Through this work, we have come to value −. In any situation, big changes made all at once just do not work. Iteration planning sessions provide inputs for task cycles. With collective ownership, you can make changes wherever they are needed. Concrete feedback supports courage because you feel much safer trying radical modifications to the code, if you can see the tests turn green at the end. By working together, each one is proud of everyone's code. One of the reasons Extreme Programming is so popular is its flexible nature. Programmers write as many automated tests as much as possible, and if all of them prove to be successful, then the coding is regarded to be complete. Make frequent small releases. Acceptance testing is done to ascertain that the programmers understand the requirements and in turn can satisfy the actual customer requirements. Management respects the right of the developers to accept the responsibility and receive authority over their own work. When implementing a feature, the developers always ask if there is a way of changing the existing code to make adding the feature simple. Extreme Programming is the one, true way to build software. Many programmers prefer to do experimental prototyping, tough, deep-concentration problems and logical thinking alone. However, there are no formal standards for how much or what kind of documents are needed. In Extreme Programming, Incremental Change is applied in many ways. Kent Beck, the author of ‘Extreme Programming Explained’ defined 12 Extreme Programming practices as follows −, The Extreme Programming practices can be grouped into four areas −. You cannot possibly write all those tests. Code reviews are effective as the code is reviewed all the time. Iterating facilitates the accommodating changes as the software evolves with the changing requirements. Collective Ownership enables the team to mix and match and allows them to maintain a cordial relationship. The pairing is dynamic. Also known as XP, eXtreme Programming … Testing quickly helps you to know that you have not broken anything. Adding new functionality, but only changing the implementation. The business (who represents the customer) should always be available. The iteration Plan is the primary deliverable of this activity. Combination of practices produces more complex and emergent behavior. Remain calm even when everyone else is panicking. Testing reduces the chance of breaking things accidentally. Unit tests are mainly performed to assess if the features are working according to their specifications. Collaboration facilitates combining different perspectives timely in implementation, defect fixes and accommodating changes. The goal of a good architecture is to give everyone a coherent story within which to work, a story that can easily be shared by both the business and the technical members.Hence, in Extreme Programming, by asking for a metaphor, we are likely to get an architecture that is easy to communicate and elaborate. If you predict such conditions in your development, the Agile methodologies are the most suited. There should be no competition between the two. Delivery milestones are captured by release plans. Extreme Programming is the responsibility of everyone in the team. In the mid-1990s, software … The acceptance tests are written along with the stories and provided prior to implementation. Developers write all code in accordance with the rules emphasizing-. The system and the code provides feedback on the state of development to the managers, stakeholders and the customers. Team automates these tests to verify that a feature is implemented correctly. As all the requirements are to be known before the initiation of development, it is not suitable when the requirements are incomplete or vague. Extreme Programming works towards providing iterative and recurrent software releases throughout the project; instead of everything together after a single, long project development … To make changes in individual user stories and the relative priorities of different user stories. Reduces the duration, which is otherwise lengthy. Thus, you can start development with just a metaphor. The success of projects, which follow Extreme Programming practices, is due to −. All unit tests are executed very frequently and the code cannot be checked-in until all unit tests pass. In view of the technology and business lessons of this first working system, it becomes clear to business what is now the most valuable functionality, and the team quickly puts this into production. The game is a meeting that occurs once per iteration, typically once a week. Programming and channel line-up subject to change. Production and post-delivery defects: Emphasis is on − the unit tests to detect and fix the defects early. It’s vital to understand their requirements so that they can provide feedback to them regarding the technical aspects of the problem and whether they can be solved or not. The unit test results also help in refactoring. You have the right to know what is needed, with clear declarations of priority. Simple, well-defined and routine coding is done more efficiently by a solitary programmer and then reviewed with a partner. Delivers working product to the customer in short iterations (short releases). The answer- is the present pair, since the last pair left the tests at 100%. The basic rules of planning game can be categorized into the following areas −. Planning − In case the team completes many user stories in an iteration, make the iterations smaller. Not all programming available in all areas. It is important that the developers have no influence on this story. Unit tests tell the developers the status of the system. The results revealed that −. The delivery of a product with obsolete requirements, not meeting the customer’s expectations. It is found that face-to-face communication is the most efficient and the most effective method in the path of development and eliminates wait times and delays. The goal of the game is to maximize the value of software produced by the team. 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