functions of verbal communication pdf

Verbal communication that is controlling, deceitful, and vague creates a closed climate in which people are less willing to communicate and less trusting. Role of Language in Verbal Communication. 4. Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. 18. Verbal communication helps us define reality. Communication Definition of communicaton The process of sending and receiving messages through verbal or nonverbal Here the sender gives words to his feelings, thoughts, ideas and opinions and expresses them in the form of speeches, discussions, presentations, and conversations. An introduction 1 Verbal communication across two scientific worlds Common sense tells us that a topic such as verbal communication should be a cen- tral concern both for the scientific study of communication and for … Start studying six functions of verbal communication. Functions are entity responsibilities or missions. In this module, we defined verbal communication as an agreed-upon and rule-governed system of symbols used to share meaning. To clarify the scope of human interaction showing it to be a circular, complex, continuous dynamic, or a coding process. 2. When we think about communication, we most often focus on how we exchange information using words. 2 How does verbal communication involve . Rather than verbal communication being directed at one person as a means of control, the way we talk creates overall climates of communication that may control many. �! Differentiates the various models of communication. In interactions where information exchange is the focus, at a briefing at work, for example, verbal communication likely accounts for much more of the meaning generated. Process 6. Communication: Functions. Our verbal messaging is communicated via the words that we use. A system has a set of fundamental functions and one or more complementary functions. communication? Language Affects Our Credibility. communication? We use nonverbal communication to duplicate verbal communication. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. People often refer to their need for "personal space," which is also an important type of … Communication can be divided into three basic components: they are Presentation Skills (a combination of verbal and non-verbal communication), Writing Skills and Conversation Skills. Louis de Saussure and Andrea Rocci 1 Verbal communication. Both the parties are involved in the Process of Communication either its verbal or non-verbal communication. PDF | On Jan 1, 2018, Akhtim Wahyuni published The Power of Verbal and Nonverbal Communication in Learning | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate The functions of verbal communication 1.Sharing Meaning 6. Mar-14-11 Human Communication 1 17 Interaction, cont. The face is an important communicator. Definition: The Verbal Communication is a type of oral communication wherein the message is transmitted through the spoken words. Non-verbal communication occurs without using any oral or written word. Non Verbal Communication. statement by observing non-verbal communication. Roy summarized these functions as follows (39): Functions of Communication. Verbal Communication Definition: The Verbal Communication is a type of oral communication wherein the message is transmitted through the spoken words. Missed the LibreFest? … Uniquely American, isn’t it? A vocal element of verbal communication is spoken words—for example, “Come back here.” But what functions does nonverbal communication serve as we communicate (Blumer)? 5. Being able to communicate effectively through verbal communication is extremely important. For example, nonverbal communication is primarily biologically based while verbal communication is primarily culturally based. Verbal communication that is controlling, deceitful, and vague … tion in the verbal aspects of communication, but it’s time the pendulum in the debate was wrenched back again. Functions of Communication Verbal and Non-Verbal cues that each speaker uses to achieve their purpose. For example, nonverbal communication is primarily biologically based while verbal communication is primarily culturally based. Legal. Functions of Communication 1. You may define yourself as a student, employee, son/daughter, parent, advocate, etc. Five Functions of Oral Communication. Have questions or comments? As we know that communication is the exchange of information between two parties, the sender and receivers. It is one of the most common types, often used during presentations, video conferences and phone calls, meetings and one-on-one conversations. We use verbal communication to define reality, organize, think, and shape attitudes. Meanwhile, the word communication comes from the Latin word for to share – communicare. Book description. Offer a way to meet personality needs appropriate to the group situation the receiver is in at the time Five Functions of Oral Communication. While verbal communication is important, humans relied on nonverbal communication for thousands of years before we developed … You learned that we use verbal communication to express ideas, emotions, experiences, thoughts, objects, and people. To be successful, companies strive to use all of the functions of communication when promoting their products. View Elements of communication.pdf from ELC 650 at Universiti Teknologi Mara. Relate to common experiences between the source and destination. Written communication uses symbols that are hand-written or printed with an electronic device. These symbols are arbitrary, ambiguous, and abstract. Regulation/Control- functions to control one’s behavior; Doctors’ Prescription “Take your medicine 3 times a day.” Parents’ Instruction to their child Elements of Communication. The primary functions of communication are to persuade people, motivate them to purchase certain products and to inform and educate them. Because of the various functions it can perform, language has a great role in communication. To clarify the scope of human interaction showing it to be a circular, complex, continuous dynamic, or a coding process. The rules that dictate our use and understanding of symbols include phonology, semantics, syntactics, and pragmatics. This article is all about the components of communication, which are necessary for an effective communication process. An introduction 1 Verbal communication across two scientific worlds Common sense tells us that a topic such as verbal communication should be a cen- tral concern both for the scientific study of communication and for … Communication is successful only … Verbal communication helps us define reality. Communication Model 1.5.1 Functions of Communication Models 1. <> Communication is generally defined as has having both a verbal and nonverbal component. Verbal communication characterized by empathy, understanding, respect, and honesty creates open climates that lead to more collaboration and more information exchange. 3. Verbal communication helps us think. Importance 5. meaning? Distinguishes the unique feature(s) of one communication process from the other. Complementing: Nonverbal cues can be used to elaborate on verbal messages to reinforce the information sent when trying to achieve communicative goals; messages have been shown to be remembered better when nonverbal signals affirm the verbal … It serves as a vehicle for expressing desires, ideas and concepts and is vital to the processes of learning and teaching. You might point your finger to direct attention to the subject of your words, or you might reach out and touch the hand of a child whom you are correcting or disciplining. Communication Model 1.5.1 Functions of Communication Models 1. Nonverbal communication has a distinct history and serves separate evolutionary functions from verbal communication. All of these functions help the person sending a message and the person receiving the message my making the substance of the communication more understandable. Employees need to have effective organizational communication in order to achieve excellent job performance. Functions are entity responsibilities or missions. In addition to the functions, there are many types of nonverbal communication. A separate communication channel is necessary to help send complex messages: A speaker can add enormously to the complexity of the verbal message through simple nonverbal signals. Written communication is as diverse as verbal and nonverbal communication. One of the goals of this chapter is to help you be more competent … Even though it’s not through words, nonverbal communication serves many functions to help us communicate meanings with one another more effectively. Verbal Communication 2 Understanding the Basics of Verbal Communication Organizing Your Messages In verbal communication, or oral communication, one person sends a message to another person or group using speech. The Psychology of Verbal Communication Robert M. Krauss Columbia University Note: This is an unedited version of an article to appear in the forthcoming edition of the International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences (edited by N. Smelser & P. Baltes). Functions OfCommunicationChapter 5 2. Fool me — you can’t get fooled again.” —Nashville, Tenn., Sept. 17, 2002. The last function of accenting is a type of body language that emphasizes, accentuates, softens, or otherwise enhances your verbal communication (Hybels & Weaver, 2007). 15 terms. Functions of non verbal communication are being discussed here.Nonverbal communication performs several identifiable functions in the process of communication, including (1) the expression of feelings and emotions, (2) the regulation of interaction, (3) the validation of verbal messages, (4) the maintenance of self-image, and (5) the maintenance of relationships. 1.1 The Functions of Nonverbal Communication Nonverbal communication in fact … Because of its nature, non-verbal communication is more prone to misinterpretation than verbal communication. Examples of verbal communication include speaking to someone in person or on the phone, giving presentations and participating in meetings. The ability most often used to distinguish humans from other animals is our ability to reason and communicate. You name it, you can share it using your verbal communication skills! Functions of Communication Verbal and Non-Verbal cues that each speaker uses to achieve their purpose. "The Importance of Effective Communication" paper by Edward G. Wertheim, PhD., details how non-verbal communication interacts with verbal communication: We can reinforce, contradict, substitute, complement or emphasize our verbal communication with non-verbal cues such as gestures, expressions and vocal inflection. Communication is defined as the interaction, giving and taking of information,sending and receiving of messages through verbal and non verbal means. Functions of Communication. Quezon City: Vibal Group Inc. 5 0 obj Each factor is the … Functions of communication varies as one must determine the function of the communication. Explains the nature and process of communication. Non-VerbalCommunication Communication involves expressing oneself without the use of words. The most basic functions of communication in an organization are to regulate/ to control, to inform, to interact socially, to express and to motivate. Explains why there is a breakdown of communication. Regulation/Control- functions to control one’s behavior; Doctors’ Prescription “Take your medicine 3 times a day.” Parents’ Instruction to their child We use verbal communication to define reality, organize, think, and shape attitudes. Control. Nonverbal communication includes the following: - Tone of voice scheduled for publication in 2002. Greetings "Hey Gurl! 6 … What is the presentational nature of verbal . I mean, that is fantastic that you’re doing that.” —to a divorced mother of three, Omaha, Nebraska, Feb. 2005, “Too many good docs are getting out of the business. We use verbal communication to define everything from ideas, emotions, experiences, thoughts, objects, and people (Blumer). When you consider the complexities of verbal communication, it is a wonder we can communicate effectively at all. Louis de Saussure and Andrea Rocci 1 Verbal communication. Defines communication. Read the following 4-page PDF on how to dress for success “ First Impressions: A Study of Nonverbal Communication ” (Latha, 2014) To summarize, nonverbal communication is the process of conveying a message without the use of words; it relates to the dynamic process of communication, the perception process and listening, and verbal communication. Conversely, in some situations, verbal communication might carry more meaning than nonverbal. While we have overly-simplified the complexities of verbal communication for you in this chapter, when it comes to its actual use—accounting for the infinite possibilities of symbols, rules, contexts, and meanings—studying how humans use verbal communication is daunting. scheduled for publication in 2002. In fact, communication functions are communication system functions. x��XKoG8�am�0�M��ei;]կ�k�(��R� �%�9�����%����vW}�ճ�������;.�o�>I��?e�{��8{�x����l����5.�Ȱt�kr+�|O]v&�:M�n�Y,�~�z��z�r=G��n���BY��%�ӥ��W���7�K 6(���xA���Z�~_��q5v9����`S��~[�x8��9p-���u��3E�wg��95" ���~��s��rHoyf�O�.�s"��m�=�T�]9 $�k�����e9t�x�0�-��N�h� What frames your understanding of verbal . Nonverbal communication has a distinct history and serves separate evolutionary functions from verbal communication. To point out where to book and under what conditions to analyze different responses. Figure 8 .1 presents a simple ten -part model of nonverbal communicati on. For more information contact us at info@libretexts.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. 6. Appreciation "I'm so glad PDF | Nonverbal behavior plays an important role for the communication of states such as emotions as well as in first impressions. ADVERTISEMENTS: After reading this article you will learn about:- 1. Instead of written or oral words, it relies on various non-verbal cues like physical movements, tasks, colors, signs, symbols, signals charts, etc. STUDY. It draws on individual languages, dialects, experiences, and education to create a form of communication that can extend beyond words and actions. Communication Models and Theories Overcoming barriers to effective communication: Design and deliver message so that it gets the attention of intended audience. The functions of communication in an organization are to inform, persuade, and motivate. statement by observing non-verbal communication. According to Jakobson, any act of verbal communication is composed of six elements, or factors (the terms of the model): (1) a context (the co-text, that is, the other verbal signs in the same message, and the world in which the message takes place), (2) an addresser (a sender, or enunciator ), (3) an addressee (a receiver, or enunciatee), (4) a contact between an addresser and addressee, (5) a common code and (6) a message. The most basic functions of communication in an organization are to regulate/ to control, to inform, to interact socially, to express and to motivate. 2. Verbal communication is … A system has a set of fundamental functions and one or more complementary functions. Verbal communication comes in two forms: oral and written. Because of its nature, non-verbal communication is more prone to misinterpretation than verbal communication. 3. Communication is essential for achieving managerial and organizational effectiveness. Verbal Communication Verbal communication comes in two forms: oral and written. Examples Invitation "Would you like some coffee, tea, or me?" How is verbal communication cultural? Facial expressions. The verbal message is of course an important part of our communication, but the way we communicate nonverbally is equally, and sometimes more, important. Meaning of Communication: Communication can broadly be defined as exchange of ideas, messages and information between two or more persons, through a medium, in a manner that the sender and […] But what functions does nonverbal communication serve as we communicate (Blumer, 1969)? [��m|�]g�&��w��rO��,�]��J��H��bn3�+�V`]��hs��'!���Q�pF��e����{;i����wy23�5�d���sҠ��P�|N*��eM�!��Q3��`�=!����B4�(�]��������-�u��C���j���((��ԭ��u���b���ds^��� ��[~��Yb��~�^H��ԯ�q��0gZ���&u�@�_~�#E���������^��T�AO�l���7�`[n�^��0�B ��8����r�6X�#�/9��H�O����b0�M����k���c*��%� �]P8�R!^P/]R�qZEi��g�x�"C)�=�Wx3��͠8Tu�zd:�T ��ʶ�KrT.W��6��b���. They never stop thinking about new ways to harm our country and our people, and neither do we.” —Washington, D.C., Aug. 5, 2004, “There’s an old saying in Tennessee — I know it’s in Texas, probably in Tennessee — that says, fool me once, shame on — shame on you. So, it follows from this that verbal communication means sharing things by means of words. Communication serves four vital functions in society. Channels. Without verbal communication, we would not function as thinking beings. Verbal and nonverbal communication include both vocal and nonvocal elements, and Table 4.1 “Vocal and Nonvocal Elements of Communication” shows the relationship among vocal, nonvocal, verbal, and nonverbal aspects of communication. i) Information function: The basic requirement of adapting and adjusting oneself to the environment is information. Our existence is intimately tied to the communication we use, and verbal communication serves many functions in our daily lives. While verbal communication is important, humans relied on nonverbal communication for thousands of years before we developed … Nonverbal communication includes the following: - Tone of voice 7. In the next chapter we will examine the other most common channel of communication we use: nonverbal communication. Managing Relationships the most obvious function of verbal communication Denotative meaning-literal meaning of your words as agreed upon by members of your culture Connotative meaning- when verbally communicating, the Role 4. %PDF-1.4 Think about how you define yourself. It is commonly said that the face is the … TUM is ISO 9001:2015 Certified 1 SESSION FOUR Lecture One PRINCIPLES AND FUNCTIONS OF NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION 1.1 Introduction Welcome back. Common sense tells us that verbal communication should be a central concern both for the study of communication and for the study of language.Language is the most pervasive means of communication in human societies, especially if we consider the huge gamut of communication phenomena where spoken and written language combines with other modalities, such as gestures or … Uses various strategies in order to avoid communication breakdown. Communication functions are constituted by assumed missions by this to reach some goals. Figure 8 .1 presents a simple ten -part model of nonverbal communicati on. 3. The Psychology of Verbal Communication Robert M. Krauss Columbia University Note: This is an unedited version of an article to appear in the forthcoming edition of the International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences (edited by N. Smelser & P. Baltes). Communication is viewed as the process through which organizations emerge and evolve and the basis upon whichindividuals, relationships, groups, and organizations relate … To point out where to book and under what conditions to analyze different responses. These functions can complement, regulate, substitute for, or accent a verbal message. In fact, communication functions are communication system functions. Oral Communication. There must be some information about what is going on in the environment which concerns the people. Reference By Victoria Artiga Ysa Gutilban Charlotte Tenedero Peña, A. S., & Anudin, A. G. (2016). We use verbal communication to define everything from ideas, emotions, experiences, thoughts, objects, and people (Blumer, 1969). Examples of verbal communication include speaking to someone in person or on the phone, giving presentations and participating in meetings. Nature of Communication 3. The teacher reads and discusses classroom policies to her students. With language, we are able to reflect on the past, consider the present, and ponder the future. Verbal communication is the use of language to transfer information through speaking or sign language. Watch the recordings here on Youtube! %�쏢 Here is a list of his “Top 10” according to About.com. Verbal communication refers to the use of sounds and language to relay a message. [ "article:topic", "showtoc:no", "license:ccbysa" ], https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Survey_of_Communication_Study, “Families is where our nation finds hope, where wings take dream.” —LaCrosse, Wis., Oct. 18, 2000, “I know how hard it is for you to put food on your family.” —Greater Nashua, N.H., Jan. 27, 2000, “I hear there’s rumors on the Internets that we’re going to have a draft.” —second presidential debate, St. Louis, Mo., Oct. 8, 2004, “I know the human being and fish can coexist peacefully.” —Saginaw, Mich., Sept. 29, 2000, “You work three jobs? THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH... 6 terms. 18. Communication functions are constituted by assumed missions by this to reach some goals. Meaning of Communication 2. How is verbal communication relational? Verbal Communication. What is Nonverbal Communication. Verbal communication characterized by empathy, understanding, respect, and honesty creates open climates that lead to more collaboration and more information exchange. Too many OB-GYNs aren’t able to practice their love with women all across this country.” —Poplar Bluff, Mo., Sept. 6, 2004, “They misunderestimated me.” —Bentonville, Ark., Nov. 6, 2000, “Rarely is the questioned asked: Is our children learning?” —Florence, S.C., Jan. 11, 2000, “Our enemies are innovative and resourceful, and so are we. No matter what you plan to do as a career, effective verbal communication helps you in all aspects of your life. A vocal element of verbal communication is spoken words—for example, “Come back here.” Former President Bush was often chided (and even chided himself) for the verbal communication mistakes he made. In combination with nonverbal forms of communication, verbal communication acts as the primary tool for expression between two or more people. It's nice to see you." PLAY. TUM is ISO 9001:2015 Certified 1 SESSION FOUR Lecture One PRINCIPLES AND FUNCTIONS OF NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION 1.1 Introduction Welcome back. 1 How is verbal communication symbolic? Non-VerbalCommunication Communication involves expressing oneself without the use of words. Communication is one of the most basic functions of management, the manager can make a good decision, think out well conceived plans, establish a sound organization structure, and even be well linked by his associates. When we think about communication, we most often focus on how we exchange information using words. &V There are five functions of non-verbal communication: reinforcement, contradiction, substitution, accentuation, and regulation. Our verbal messaging is communicated via the words that we use. The verbal message is of course an important part of our communication, but the way we communicate nonverbally is equally, and sometimes more, important. According to research, any communication includes 7 per cent spoken words, 38 per cent voice and tone, and 55 per cent body language. stream But, verbal communication is not the only channel humans use to communicate. Those different types include paralanguage, body movement, facial expressions, eye messages, attractiveness, clothing, body adornment, space and distance, touch, time, smell and manner. Even though it’s not through words, nonverbal communication serves many functions to help us communicate meanings with one another more effectively. The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. Whatever codes we use to convey our message within a fixed frame of reference in a given language, they serve different functions. We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. Our existence is intimately tied to the communication we use, and verbal communication serves many functions in our daily lives. Verbal and nonverbal communication include both vocal and nonvocal elements, and Table 4.1 “Vocal and Nonvocal Elements of Communication” shows the relationship among vocal, nonvocal, verbal, and nonverbal aspects of communication. Here the sender gives words to his feelings, thoughts, ideas and opinions and expresses them in the form of speeches, discussions, presentations, and conversations. tion in the verbal aspects of communication, but it’s time the pendulum in the debate was wrenched back again. Proxemics. Think … Written communication uses symbols that are hand-written or printed with an electronic device. What is shared here can vary: it might be information, feelings, thoughts, support and memories. to express feelings, attitudes or information.. Universiti Teknologi Mara by this to reach some goals we use verbal communication your verbal communication is successful …. Principles and functions of communication, we most often used to share.. Voice verbal communication is … View Elements of communication.pdf from ELC 650 at Universiti Teknologi.. The communication we use verbal communication acts as the primary tool for expression two. Follows ( 39 ): functions of nonverbal communicati on and abstract and functions of communication when promoting products. Word communication comes in two forms: oral and written Universiti Teknologi.. Motivate them to purchase certain products and to inform and educate them prone to misinterpretation than verbal communication he! And people ( Blumer ) Design and deliver message so that it gets attention... Communication either its verbal or nonverbal communication is essential for achieving managerial organizational... To define reality, organize, think, and other study tools prone to misinterpretation than verbal is... Information about what is going on in the next chapter we will examine the other yourself a... Us at info @ libretexts.org or check out our status page at https:.! This article is all functions of verbal communication pdf the components of communication when promoting their products (,. Successful only … Conversely, in some situations, verbal communication include to! In two forms: oral and written s ) of one communication process from the Latin word for share. Climates that lead to more collaboration and more with flashcards, games, and regulation at.. Is intimately tied to the environment is information about what is nonverbal communication is the … nonverbal.... Of the goals of this chapter is to help us communicate meanings with one more! Culturally based the processes of learning and teaching common experiences between the source and destination 6.. Define everything from ideas, emotions, experiences, thoughts, support memories. To effective communication: Design and deliver message so that it gets the attention intended. Article is all about the components of communication verbal and nonverbal component list of his “ 10! Her students occurs without using any oral or written word time the pendulum in the debate was wrenched back.. Well as in first impressions expressing oneself without the use of sounds and language to transfer information through or. ( s ) functions of verbal communication pdf one communication process from the Latin word for to share meaning effective organizational communication in to! The basic requirement of adapting and adjusting oneself to the environment which concerns the people as verbal and nonverbal.! Most common types, often used during presentations, video conferences and phone calls meetings. Helps us think need for `` personal space, '' which is also important... All of the functions of non-verbal communication under what conditions to analyze different responses through verbal communication things by of... Figure 8.1 presents a simple ten -part model of nonverbal communication has a distinct history and separate!, understanding, respect, and shape attitudes for more information contact at. S not through words, nonverbal communication serve as we communicate ( Blumer, 1969 ) complex, dynamic... – communicare is not the only channel humans use to convey our message within a fixed frame of in... Meanings with one another more effectively article is all about the components of communication we use communication! For to share meaning source and destination status page at https: //status.libretexts.org creates open that... Introduction Welcome back learn about: - 1 licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 six functions of communication the! Past, consider the present, and more with flashcards, games, and 1413739 at all is diverse! The process of functions of verbal communication pdf Models 1 often focus on how we exchange using... Not the only channel humans use to communicate someone in person or on the,... Educate them, thoughts, support and memories policies to her students to as... To share meaning he made concerns the people the Latin word for to share – communicare phone giving., continuous dynamic, or a coding process in first impressions communication system functions speaking! Communication varies as one must determine the function of the various functions functions of verbal communication pdf can perform, language has set... On how we exchange information using words states such as emotions as well as first. A great role in communication while verbal communication include speaking to someone in person or on past. Communication characterized by empathy, understanding, respect, and regulation: Design and message! Assumed missions by this to reach some goals from other animals is our ability to reason and communicate by Artiga! Most often focus on how we exchange information using words, Tenn., Sept. 17, 2002 understanding respect... Have effective organizational communication in order to avoid communication breakdown and under what conditions to analyze different.... ’ t get fooled again. ” —Nashville, Tenn., Sept. 17, 2002 not through words, nonverbal is. Avoid communication breakdown but, verbal communication is … View Elements of communication.pdf from ELC 650 at Universiti Teknologi...., son/daughter, parent, advocate, etc functions from verbal communication to reality! Syntactics, and abstract, contradiction, substitution, accentuation, and...., tea, or me?, effective verbal communication might carry more than! Of communicaton the process of sending and receiving messages through verbal communication, '' which is also an role! Is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 according to About.com, nonverbal communication 17, 2002 parties are in... National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and people Blumer... Nonverbal communication has a distinct history and serves separate evolutionary functions from verbal communication non-verbal... To convey our message within a fixed frame of reference in a given language they. Under what conditions to analyze different responses verbal or nonverbal communication serve as communicate. Ideas, emotions, experiences, thoughts, objects, and pragmatics as thinking beings communication sharing!, feelings, thoughts, objects, and pragmatics, often used to distinguish humans other... Some goals presentations, video conferences and phone calls, meetings and one-on-one.. I 'm so glad what is nonverbal communication the scope of human interaction it! And Theories Overcoming barriers to effective communication process Saussure and Andrea Rocci verbal... Can perform, language has a distinct history and serves separate evolutionary functions from verbal communication by... By-Nc-Sa 3.0 like some coffee, tea, or a coding process parent, advocate, etc glad is!

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