Media convergence transforms established industries, services, and work practices and enables entirely new forms of content to emerge. All baseband functions and most RF signalling are realized in a CO, where resources are shared among all fronthaul links even if the links have various structures and serve different types of cells. By centralizing all DSP functions into BBU, downstream RF signals are transmitted as analogue signals, where multiple bands of multiple services can be multiplexed in the frequency domain by using band mapping and CA techniques . However, they still require high-speed DA/AD (digital-to-analogue/analogue-to-digital) converters at BSs, which will reduce the network scalability and tremendously increase the cost. The advert of ICTs led to the innovation of technological convergence. In this case, the virtual BS from each RAU’s viewpoint is identical. As a result of convergence, no baseband or digital processing exists between the CO and UE in any fronthaul structure. To solve the first three problems, MIMO technologies are the most effective approach to overcome the inherent drawbacks of high-frequency wireless. Extreme capacity, access data rate and performance demands are typically required for next-generation wireless access. After photo-detection, the MMW signal is transmitted by the antenna array with the desired beam form. Meaning of convergence Convergence comes from the prefix con-, meaning together, and the verb verge, which … Moreover, a heterogeneous network enables the seamless integration of high-frequency small cells with existing cells to support high-speed, low-latency services. Presentation about how media convergence influences media organizations and media work. (Online version in colour. In comparison with their high-speed counterparts, low-speed DAC/ADCs with high resolution and reliable performance can provide us with an inexpensive option to employ a low-cost intensity modulation/direct detection (IM/DD) scheme for a future digitized optical access network, especially at BSs. on October 31, 2020 No Comments. Other DSP-based formats greatly increase the complexities in both DSP and synchronization, as complex computations are needed to recover each carrier or sub-carrier. OFDM has shown its good performance to combat multipath effects and inter-symbol interference (ISI), but it suffers from high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR). In addition, greater audience engagement can help to enhance the way people experience the media. Technological convergence results in greater benefits from increased diversity in products and services in the telecommunication industry. In current RANs, digital fronthaul solutions such as CPRI and OBSAI are straightforward and robust approaches to fulfil basic LTE bandwidth needs. Similarly, consumers can access multiple forms of media content on a single device whenever they choose, often for free. The limited communication over X2 links and service gateways (SGWs) consumes lots of capacity by adding traffic overheads. This trend is expected to continue into the 5G era in 2020 in the roadmap of 3GPP (the 3rd Generation Partnership Project) . The synchronization between high-speed AD and DA conversion is also a crucial issue that affects signal recovery. Distance is not a barrier. Since complexity is centralized at the OLT, the system has potential to further increase the capacity to adapt to future high-speed WDM-PON applications and mitigate those troublesome effects, including incomplete data erasing and signal back-reflections, of traditional reflective WDM-PONs without significantly increasing the cost. In a user’s view of convergence, ‘no more cells’ frames the mobility and ‘no more standards’ frames the experience. Historically, the transition to new mobile technologies has resulted in the need for a fourfold to fivefold increase in backhaul capacity. These methods enable fast and low-loss optical processing over the fibre links to RAUs/RRHs [26,27]. Nevertheless, media convergence is really good and is something that has contributed immensely to the media coverage and to the growth and development of our society at large. )Download figureOpen in new tabDownload powerPoint, Figure 4. According to pro-consolidation arguments, due to converging technology the media houses are fueled through the preference to reach customers in one of a kind and regularly modern ways. A CO centralizes functions for both macrocells and small cells, including baseband processing as well as radio signalling. Meanwhile, convergence of technologies will also happen in future mobile backhaul networks. The bandwidth requirement for higher wireless speed will grow beyond 100 Gb s−1 for a single access site. Moreover, with the interactive World Wide Web, audiences are able to download and share music, video, photo via social networking and become media produce. All of the above1. Though centralization and mobile fronthaul are going to play more and more important roles, distributed systems and mobile backhaul are still necessary to provide a fundamental tier in the heterogeneous network. From another aspect, each BBU belongs to the cloud to maximize its utilization. The centralization and sharing among operators also simplify the work of hardware providers, as deployment and maintenance are therefore centralized with minimum peripheral parameters. On the other hand, to meet the needs for higher spectral efficiency and bandwidth flexibility, mobile backhaul with more advanced modulation formats will be developed. Structure of resource sharing in a centralized RAN.Download figureOpen in new tabDownload powerPoint. This can be considered as a one-on-N distributed antenna system scenario, which is likely in small-cell RANs due to the mobility and density of UE. This leads to the lots of benefits such as to the data center … Different approaches for the realization of a high-speed fibre–wireless integration system as mobile backhaul/fronthaul, including optical polarization division multiplexing (PDM) combined with MIMO reception [31,32], advanced multi-level modulation, multi-carrier modulation , antenna polarization multiplexing [33,34], MMW CoMP transmissions [35,36] and multi-band multiplexing, have been proposed . Compared with CPRI, the spectral efficiency can be improved by up to 60 times and no AD/DA is required at the RAU. For example, a user that is 1 km away from the CO and covered by a small cell with 2 km fibre fronthaul (including 1 km of detour) has a fixed time offset of 6.7 μs without any jitter. Information is readily available across multiple platforms in today’s society, so the audience is able to access it through many different ways and is able to pick a platform that best suits his or her needs. A multi-structure mobile fronthaul provides system resilience, flexibility and increased overall bandwidth capacity. Media convergence describes the collaboration between, or fusion of, at least two types of media in mutually beneficial projects. In this paper, we will review how such convergence happens and what the benefits to future mobile networks are. The convergence originates from fibre–wireless integration to macro- and small cells with multi-layer centralization and resource sharing, and results in seamless coordination among cells and services with accurate synchronization in future mobile networks. The authors would like to thank the members of Georgia Tech Fiber-Wireless Integration and Networking (FiWIN) Research Center for their contributions and Dr Steven McLaughlin, the school chair of Electrical and Computer Engineering of Georgia Institute of Technology, for encouragement and support. The multi-tier coverage for mobile users takes advantage of all the above potential frequency bands by supporting multiple types of RATs and inter-band CA. Though midhaul and fronthaul have similar roles, fronthaul has higher convergence, especially in a fully centralized architecture. Mobile backhaul, midhaul and fronthaul in RANs. Many social media include a variety of functions. Media convergence is a challenge which will be faced by anyone in the media industry as it is an ever changing landscape due to fast developing technology, which makes it very difficult to keep up with (Jenkins, 2004). Currently, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) , carrier-less amplitude and phase (CAP) modulation  and sub-carrier multiplexing (SCM)  have been deeply investigated. The content creators can use the platform to generate customized content that is targeted at a specific group. At the RAU, optical signals are converted back to the RF domain, amplified by a power amplifier and emitted via an air interface. Multi-service coexistence, multi-RAT support and license-assisted access (LAA) allow users to wander between previously disparate standards. This heterogeneous sharing is especially efficient if the number of cells is high or the services share similar DBA schemes. )Download figureOpen in new tabDownload powerPoint, Figure 2. benefits of media convergence. As a transient structure between backhaul and fronthaul, mobile midhaul is the link between a macro-BBU and its extending RAUs, as shown in figure 4. None of the existing radio access technologies (RATs) will be able individually to provide the capabilities that effectively meet market demands. Evolution from current RAN to future ubiquitous coverage. Structure of resource sharing in a centralized RAN. As a result of significant impacts from wireless service providers and hardware developers, multichannel low-speed DAC/ADC chips, mixer arrays and electrical oscillators have been manufactured on a large scale by the IC industry with low costs. Furthermore, in RoF-based fronthaul structures, all latencies are predictable, stable and easily compensatable at the CO, so that advance technologies such as CoMP transmission and multi-point license-assisted CA can be precisely synchronized. Wavelength division multiplex passive optical network (WDM-PON) converging the divisions in the light-wave domain and wireless domain has become a promising solution to alleviate the issue of congested backhaul data traffic . With the advancement from 3G to 4G, RANs reach a capacity of 1–10 Gb s−1 per cell . At the RAU, the RF access equipment consisting of broadband O/E and E/O converters and RF components is shared by multiple operators and/or services from the same CO. It will be decided on the merits of three objective aspects: RAN architecture, backhaul and fronthaul links, and frequency bands for future mobile networks. There's so much customer data coming in that we even coined a whole industry, Big Data, to talk about it! High capacity, low cost, flexibility and transparency to services are critical for mobile fronthaul design. In current 4G networks, eNodeB, orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA) and IP core are the major technologies that define the advancement of LTE from previous generations. RoF can support both digital RoF and analogue RoF, but analogue RoF will benefit more in terms of convergence and centralization. Convergence is the process where several media channels come together to exist and operate in synergy. This includes newspapers, television, internet, magazines, radio etc. Some people like to define convergence simply by stating it to be a merger of mass media and communication outlets. …, Questions1. Multi-service coexistence, multi-RAT support and LAA allow all users to receive reliable and affordable services beyond emerging 5G standards. Benefits of Media Convergence: The content creators can use the platform to generate customized content that is targeted at a specific group. In essence, this is a ‘no-more-cells’ architecture in which carrier aggregation among multiple frequency bands can be easily achieved with seamless handover between cells. Benefits of Media Convergence: The content creators can use the platform to generate customized content that is targeted at a specific group. The objective ofincubators is to encourage economic growth Explain the rationale to enter a mature market with asuccessful and established brand, the GustBuster®., what do you mean when we say culture is diverse, elore each number.d 1. (Online version in colour. A digital photograph, for example, can be shot and circulated globally within seconds via the Internet. Evolution from current RAN to future ubiquitous coverage. All-band radio spectrum from 0.1 to 100 GHz will be used to deliver wireless services with high capacity, high link speed and low latency. RoF as the core technique to realize fronthaul convergence can solve most of the problems that a distributed digital system may incur. The short answer is data. Since MMW has small wavelength, massive MIMO technology with beam forming is promising for high-performance radio access. Easy. However, considering the large bandwidth of MMW, requiring large numbers of high-speed ADCs and phase shifters, all-electronic control of antennas can cause significant power consumption, high cost, high complexity, large size and large weight. Media convergence is putting that book put onto your Kindle as another vehicle for content delivery, made into a movie, put on Audible, and even made into a video game for people to play with the story’s characters. Media convergence is important because it can enrich media content, increase media authenticity and produce better journalism (Zhang, 2008). There is lots of research on beam-forming schemes based on all-electronic or photonic-assisted structures. A multi-tier radio access network (RAN) combining the strength of fibre-optic and radio access technologies employing adaptive microwave photonics interfaces and radio-over-fibre (RoF) techniques is envisioned for future heterogeneous wireless communications. A photonic amplitude-changing module or chip is required to change the intensity of the split optical signals. Media convergence is important because in today’s technologically advanced world, different forms of technology continue to be released and are better than their former models because they can simply do more. People get the latest news in a very short time. Driven by video streaming and cloud computing, the overall traffic volume in wireless communication systems has grown tremendously in recent years, fuelled primarily by the uptake in mobile broadband [1–3]. Another ‘wall’ exists among current RAT standards. Combined with quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), traditional CAP and SCM techniques are more straightforward and can achieve spectral efficiencies comparable with that of OFDM. It usually involves a process that decouples content from media, allowing the same story or entertainment to exist in multiple forms. Upload; Login; Signup; Submit Search. No longer are we awaiting tomorrow’s edition to read a reply, instead heading to social media to add our own two cents. Mass Media refers to all forms of media that are open to and accessible by the public. the traditional distributed thermal control at each ONU can be replaced by an economical centralized cooling system at the OLT. In the traditional architecture deployed in current macrocell RANs, as shown in figure 2a, each base station (BS) can only handle traffic in its coverage area. Media convergence can mean one of two things: Either the merging of previously distinct media technologies resulting from digitization and computer networking–some of which are covered elsewhere in this article–or an economic strategy in which the media properties owned by communications companies employ digitization and computer networking to work together. Mobile backhaul is the physical link between the core network and BSs in a distributed architecture, as shown in figure 2a. Traditional low-frequency bands (less than 6 GHz), centimetre-wave (CMW) bands (6–30 GHz) and millimetre-wave (MMW) bands (30–300 GHz) are the three main groups of serving RF bands. Social media as a platform on the Internet which supports users to share and create content (Whitmore, Agarwal and Da Xu, 2014). Media convergence is a theory in communications where every mass medium eventually merges to the point where they become one medium due to the advent of new communication technologies. Convergence is the process where several media channels come together to exist and operate in synergy. To reduce the cost of a distributed system, new converged WDM-PON technologies will be adopted to simplify the BS. In the architecture of centralized RANs based on fibre–wireless convergence, all BS functions and most of the RF functions are shifted from cell sites to the BBU pool at the central office (CO). Each RAU is virtually connected to all the BBUs in different pools. (Online version in colour.). A convergence is basically seen in every person’s cell phone; glance down at your palm, and there sits a device that can click a photograph, edit and modify the same, and also send it in a mail. This is the 21st century, and media convergence … Ghz frequency bands are heavily used this keeps them updated on the hand. Parts of baseband functions and all RF functions in layers 1–3 and also O & M and. 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