why was vine shut down

The service will be shut down on January 17th. A community of founders learning together. … Your on-demand growth squad for SaaS, B2B, and eCommerce brands. 3 years ago. One of Twitter’s reasons to acquire Vine at such an early stage was their strategic intention to use Vine to grow Twitter’s own brand and business. 34% of startups fail due to lack of product-market fit. Now, it’s somewhere in the 200’s for all-time favorite apps, and barely makes it into the top 20 for photo and video apps. TikTok was also getting off the ground when Vine was shut down, and currently remains one of the most successful networks for sharing short video clips. They’re shutting Vine down. Yet, Vine never attempted to include sponsorship solutions into the platform. Please try again. Twitter officially shuts down Vine. TikTok and Vine share a very similar concept. In 2013, Instagram launched videos and Vine never recovered from it. Another was Vine, a short-form video sharing app that drew attention to a new generation of internet entertainers. Okay, they’re not bankrupt, but Twitter has been struggling to be profitable. Two of the founders left in 2014 (theoretically Vine’s best year! Instagram made Vine obsolete when users realized they could have everything they wanted in one place, on Instagram. Vine was founded by Dom Hofmann, Rus Yusupov, and Colin Kroll in June 2012. by Seth Fiegerman @sfiegerman January 17, 2017: 10:01 AM ET . This was posted through the official Twitter account for Vine today. Unlike Vine, TikTok is probably here to stay. Twitter bought the app in 2012 and shut it down … Their goal is to entertain the public, rather than to share a moment with friends. As it turned out, average users and Vine stars alike wanted more time for their videos, so they say goodbye to Vine and started posting their videos on Instagram. Because of this, TikTok (and Vine) content creators are closer to YouTube channel owners. This meant, however, that when the growth was gone there was no reason left to keep the service alive. why is vine being shut down. This means that Vine as a standalone brand and product wasn’t the top priority of its shareholders. More importantly, does this mean Vine stars will have to start making ten second videos on Snapchat or Instagram stories now? It presented Twitter with a convenient opportunity to compete with the (considerably bigger) social media giants like Facebook and Google on Video content. More like YouTube, less like Twitter/Facebook/Instagram. Marketers and advertisers ultimately gave up on Vine since it wasn’t a sustainable advertising model, and instead, they went to Instagram, Snapchat and Facebook. The end of (the) Vine. The short answer is: because it was an unprofitable business losing popularity to other similar services, most notably Instagram. In that sense, despite Vine’s failure, it was the beginning of a short entertainment video revolution. The fate of the Vine star. Learn from mistakes, and avoid being part of the 90% of businesses that fail. In fact, it’s their gradual move to competitor platforms that was a major reason for Vine’s final shutdown. Some remained loyal, but others knew Vine wasn’t realistic if they truly wanted to be Internet celebrities. In its statement, Twitter didn't elaborate why it is shutting down Vine but just said, "Today, we are sharing the news that in the coming months we'll be discontinuing the mobile app." Their stock currently sits at $17, an all-time low for the social network that was once worth $31 billion when they first went public. (Keep in mind Facebook was creating their own copycat app, Lasso, in an attempt to compete with TikTok. People sharing short video clips to their own social circle. We’ll be sharing more details on this blog and our Twitter account, and will notify you … Vine’s failure to meet market needs: Vine was initially envisioned as a microvlogging social media … It seems most Vine stars decided to jump ship and create on a more profitable platform. Video sharing app Vine is being killed off, it emerged today. Consequently, it makes a lot of sense that Vine was acquired by Twitter for $30 million before the app even launched. One of their primary need is a good way to get paid for their efforts, otherwise it simply doesn’t make sense to continue creating high-effort content. Similarly, Vine was a microvlogging platform because of its video length restriction combined with similar social features. To put it simply: Vine just didn’t make Twitter any money. Could this be foreshadowing an inevitable demise of Snapchat? Okay, they’re not bankrupt, but Twitter has been struggling to be profitable. All Rights Reserved, 5. Vine app will shut down and become Vine Camera on January 17th. A bit like TikTok (more on that below). Plus, it helped us procrastinate and discover some really, truly hilarious videos where people spent more time being silly and less time taking them too seriously. We’ll be sharing more details on this blog and our Twitter account, and will notify you … Learn how to avoid it for only $15! Compared to Vine, every other social network is on a larger scale, which gives social media stars a larger audience, hence, they’re able to make more money. Videos of different lengths, remix feature, live stream feature, etc. The app is owned by a tech giant with deep pockets based in Beijing called ByteDance. The popular microvideo platform that Twitter scooped up in 2012 is headed for an abrupt ending, as Vine announced in a blog post Thursday morning that it would be shutting down its app. When Vine shut down on Thursday, users and Viners alike took to social media to share their eulogies for the app, as a three-year era of short, punchy, and funny videos came to an end. Just last week it was reported that the social media platform would be letting go of over 300 employees—and now we know why. Luckily for fans, Vine is finally making a comeback through Byte, which just launched in January 2020. Vine was a good tool to grow an audience, but it was a terrible tool to monetize it. The video-sharing app is shuttering after three years, the company announced in a post to Medium on Thursday, October 27. The first and biggest devastating blow came from Instagram’s 15-sec video feature. What’s next? by Sandra Gonzalez @CNNMoney October 28, 2016: 5:30 PM ET . Vine, as we know it, is over. Obviously, not everything went according to plan. Twitter has not given the reason for the closure of Vine. Instagram, Snapchat and Facebook are easy platforms to recreate the same kind of content on, and YouTube is really where all video stars go to flourish. The main reason why Vine was shut down was that it didn’t fetch Twitter any substantial income. After shut down, Vine's smartest stars have a backup plan. This means that users only have a couple of weeks to download their Vines before they lose access to them forever.. Vine launched on January 24, 2013, as a free app for iOS devices. ByteDance would probably fight to survive much harder if their app faces difficulties. Failed StartupsSuccessful StartupsBlogEntrepreneurial ToolsStartup CemeteryPodcast. Short-form video is nowadays a standard feature of a lot of the most popular apps (Instagram, Snapchat, even stories on Facebook, YouTube, etc.). Beyond teenagers, Vine just wasn’t that popular. This is most obvious from the fact that Twitter came out with its own video feature, which pretty much invalidated the need for Vine’s existence. Here are the 6 biggest reasons behind Vine’s failure: Vine was initially envisioned as a microvlogging social media platform. Vine used to be a video hosting social media website which allowed users to create and share 6-second videos. The Instagram feature allows users to create 15-second videos, a pretty big difference compared to the six-seconds you got on Vine. Though Twitter is keeping its live video app, Periscope, alive (for now) the company just couldn’t compete with the likes of Instagram, Snapchat and Facebook Live. In a couple of months, Vine became the most used video sharing application in the market, even with low adoption of the app. Second, active content creators spend a lot of time creating content. Or do they have to find a new career? By the sounds and looks of it, Vine was cut because the company just couldn’t make money off it and didn’t have the finances to keep their staff around. 120 hours of digital marketing from a remote apprentice for only $299 (+ $50 off!). I think Vine made it pretty easy to become a Vine star, but the sad reality is that once those Vine stars gained a following, they no longer needed Vine. They are professional entertainers, looking to spend most of their day creating video content, and getting paid for it. It’s sad news to hear though because Vine was the only social channel that really ever stayed true to itself. Twitter (who owns Vine) is trying to maximize their profit which means stopping/cutting out the things that don't bring in profit. It was when it first showed up, and back in 2013 it was consistently at the top of the charts in the iOS store. The long answer, of course, includes multiple reasons. TikTok’s worldwide reach likely gives it strategic importance, which means that even if the app is unprofitable, it’s extremely unlikely it’ll get scrapped. Why did it start losing popularity despite having the first-mover’s advantage? It’s an absolute certainty that Vine’s troubles with Twitter created a lot of problems for the business in subtle ways, less visible to outsiders. While Facebook and Insta may have a better foundation it would seem from my knowing next to nothing perspective that vine already had the hardest part done which was becoming popular enough to have a legit user base. Another was Vine, a sharing app for short-form video, which drew attention to a new generation of internet entertainers. TikTok entered the market when the competition was much, much fiercer – short video solutions are abundant on all big platforms. In the long run, building an audience on Vine did pay dividends, even though Vine’s monetization options were not that great. People loved the nonsensical art that Vine stars created and they just kept watching those loops. We have created and constantly update many different resources to make you a better founder. The agency couldn’t incentivize its clients to stay on Vine instead of moving to other competitors, while a good monetization system could’ve been able to. For instance, Logan Paul who was a top Vinerwith Vine loops that passed 4 billion was pocketing $200,000 for creating a single Vine video for a brand according to 60 Minutes reports. To put the concept in context, you could say that Vine tried to do to YouTube vlogs the same thing that Twitter did to traditional blogs. If you listen closely, you can hear a never-ending loop of teenagers crying endlessly. The app just didn’t catch on like it needed to. Invite us into your inbox and get immense learning and 80+ deals on tools to help you scale your startup (worth up to $50,000)! Considering the videos are so short and snappy, there was never any real viability for advertisers to use Vine. In that sense, the key to Vine’s success was to make sure it met the needs of its active content creators perfectly in order to keep them engaged on the platform. Vine was reluctant to experiment with monetization solutions, which is not that uncommon in hyper-growth network-effect startups. They are also pushing monetization features for both the content creators (e.g. Sponsor Startup Cemetery to reach +10,000 entrepreneurs. Moreover, Twitter recently announced that they were letting go of 350 employees—or 9% of their company—and you don’t make that kind of lay off unless you really, really need to. Vine failed to do that on two key occasions: First, it stuck to its strict 6-second length for far too long, making it impossible for its content creators to experiment with new types of short-form video content. Not surprisingly, Twitter executives were talking about integrating all of Twitter’s video solutions. So, it made a lot of sense that once a Viner was big enough, they’d try pushing their audience to other platforms where they’d be able to get paid. But the announcement came just after Twitter revealed plans to … Why is TikTok doing better than Vine if the two apps are very similar? It’s difficult to have good leadership and a strong sense of direction and purpose in such circumstances. “Vine didn’t ship anything of consequence for a year.” - Ankur Thakkar, in an interview for The Verge. An Android version was released on June 2, 2013. Platform to share short looping video clips. But, apparently, that wasn’t enough, and Vine is shutting down. In a statement released on Medium @vine/important-news-about-vine-909c5f4ae7a7#.fwsnojrpl, Twitter announced that … Below, we’ll explore why. In a statement released on Medium@vine/important-news-about-vine-909c5f4ae7a7#.fwsnojrpl, Twitter announced that it’s discontinuing the app that gave you six-seconds of Internet fame. Burning money while losing market share simply isn’t sustainable. When Vine faced problems, their parent Twitter was quick to abandon the project – it wasn’t the company’s core business, and bearing losses in desperate attempts to revive it made no sense, especially keeping in mind Twitter doesn’t have as much cash as the other tech giants. On-demand doctors in emergency situations. While Vine the service might be shutting done, the app will live on in a different manner, Vine Camera will take its place. Why was Vine unprofitable? "Instagram video was the beginning of the end" - quote from a former Vine executive from an interview with The Verge. The monetization problem was not restricted to the content creators, however – the actual business wasn’t making any money either. Twitter has been in the news a lot lately for making some rather discouraging announcements. A big resource for entrepreneurs and startup owners, in which we have collected and analyzed why +100 big companies have failed. New, 2 comments. You can’t share your opinion on a subject in 6 seconds, but you might be able to do so in a minute. Brands and business owners pay top creators a huge sum of money to create six-seconds video adverts for them, so while the top viners were busy enriching their pockets, Twitter was counting their losses. Twitter is shutting down Vine, while Apple delays the launch of its AirPods headphones. Keep in mind Facebook has had trouble popularizing consumer-facing apps that it was. The company was acquired by Twitter in October 2012 for a reported $30 million but was later reformed as Intermedia Labs. However, the mobile app is … It was so easy to find funny videos to share with friends, and as you got stuck watching video after video, you started to become obsessed with certain accounts. Read on to find out both the short and long answers to these questions! Entertainment Media Platform vs Social Media Platform: Despite a similar short video format, unlike Vine, TikTok understands that it’s not in direct competition with Instagram. While that was great for users, it was not so great for the company trying to capitalize on the popularity of the app. TikTok’s Importance:                               Â. TikTok is the first example of a Chinese consumer app spreading all-over the western world. But while we’re in this time of mourning, let’s get some closure and talk about the real, likely reasons that caused Vine to shut down. Moreover, the company has also been struggling to find someone to buy them and has yet to shake hands with a suitor. It previously ranked in the top five for entertainment apps, as well as in the top 50 for best overall apps. Twitter advertises itself as a microblogging social media platform because of its character length restrictions and social features (follows, retweets, etc.). TikTok’s short videos are different from stories. Vine, the popular short-video sharing app, officially becomes Vine Camera on Tuesday. Twitter has no money. When there is trouble at the top, the problems inevitably trickle down to the whole team. … This could be your AD. We’ll be working closely with creators to make sure your questions are answered and will work hard to do this the right way. As mentioned, the stars that became popular on Vine started jumping ship before the platform was shut down. For example - actual vlogging. See Also: What Happened … Naturally, when you prove the existence of a market and simultaneously fail to meet its needs, you can be sure someone else will do so in your place. So at least for now, we can still watch our favorite Vines over and over and over again. The reason why Vine is going down is a little ambiguous at this point — in a blog explaining the news on Medium, Vine gave no reason for the shut down — … Unfortunately, it’s not that surprising of news to the rest of the world since Twitter hasn’t been doing very well financially. Vine's six seconds of fame are about to come to an end. This is made even more likely keeping in mind that in China business and government interests are rarely separate. Whatever those problems were, however, it’s a fact that Vine had trouble keeping its key executives. When discussing Vine’s failure, it’s important to bring TikTok into the conversation because of two very obvious reasons: Making things even more interesting, Vine was the first mover on the market and was out-competed nonetheless. Vine’s whole ecosystem was built on top of the work of the popular content creators, and if they left for any reason the ecosystem would crumble. Vine stars were a huge part of what made Vine so successful. © 2020 Paste Media Group. Vine has never brought in a huge profit for Twitter and so that is one of the things that they are discontinuing. Why was Instagram successful under Facebook, while Vine failed under Twitter? Log In Receive full access to our market insights, commentary, … What’s next? In the announcement, Vine, which is owned by Twitter, specifically said that “in the coming months we’ll be discontinuing the mobile app.” Since the only way you can upload and share a Vine is via the mobile app, that means that users will no longer be able to create new content to share with their audiences. And unlike Vine, TikTok is doing a good job addressing market needs. After vine shut down other apps continued to spread with the short video idea and made it’s ending less hard for it’s admired viewers. The official successor to Vine … ), and the third was laid-off later on, which at least hints at a conflict with the higher-ups in Twitter. Competitors with existing audiences, deep pockets and a good opportunity to move into Vine’s market quickly did so. KANSAS CITY, Mo – A popular 18 th and Vine District eatery and bar has been shut down and accused of violating COVID-19 safety guidelines. What it became after launch, however, was something quite different - an entertainment media platform. On November 12, 2013, the application was released for Windows Phone. So, almost all popular Viners like King Bach, Nash Grier, Lele Pons, Brittany Furlan, Rudy Mancuso, Josh Peck, Jerry Purpdrank, Logan Paul, Cameron Dallas, and Alx James are professional influencers with a presence on multiple platforms – Instagram, Twitter, YouTube, and unsurprisingly – TikTok. And without their Vine stars, Vine had no one brining in traffic or drawing advertisers in. Yet, it’s extremely successful. The news was announced via Medium and it won’t be immediate. People loved how short and hilarious the videos were, but just as the videos only lasted for six seconds, so did their fame. why is vine being shut down. Twitter announced on Thursday that it will shut down the Vine mobile app in the coming months. If Vine had hundreds of millions of users at its peak, why did it shut down? Vine failed, while TikTok is arguably the current hottest app in the world. Get fast, reliable web, mobile and software development help 24/7. TikTok’s ads solution). Why is Twitter shutting down Vine? I suspect the fact that Instagram was acquired at a later stage of the life of the business plays an important role. We’ll be working closely with creators to make sure your questions are answered and will work hard to do this the right way. Twitter bought a social media talent agency to try to monetize indirectly, but this wasn’t a good solution to Vine’s problems. This wouldn’t make sense if Facebook thought Instagram is their TikTok competitor.). They’re shutting Vine down. If you've enjoyed this article, make sure to subscribe to our newsletter at the top of the page! Despite being innovative and very culturally influential, Vine became a part of tech, startup, and cultural history. Users have to download their old Vine clips before they are archived. The good news is, Vine won’t be deleting videos any time soon and you can download them if you want to keep your vines forever. Whatever happens, Vine stars will surely take their social media fame to another platform and teenagers will move on to the next big thing. You’ll be able to post short looping videos to Twitter, but Vine’s own network will be gone. Your subscription could not be saved. donations during live streams) and the platform (e.g. Most of its users were passive viewers consuming the content of a minority of active content creators. So, despite the plethora of social platforms with short video features, Vine’s demise left a hole in the performative short-video entertainment market, and TikTok jumped in it extremely successfully. For example, the money flowing into Vine’s ecosystem was mostly direct sponsorships for the top content creators. Vine shutting down was one of the hardest things for many viewers and it will be missed greatly. Now, Vine was also quick to state that the website and apps are not going away today, and suggested that the website may contin… Still, he said, “The decision whether to simply shut down a website or to allow it to continue operating for a brief period for a law enforcement purpose is a difficult one.” That became popular on Vine did pay dividends, even though Vine’s monetization options were not that uncommon in network-effect! Sure to subscribe to our newsletter at the top priority of its AirPods headphones down,... 15-Sec video feature opportunity to move into Vine’s market quickly did so, why... ), and avoid being part of what made Vine obsolete when users realized they could have everything they in! Long run, building an audience, but others knew Vine wasn ’ t enough, and eCommerce.. For now, we can still watch our favorite Vines over and over again subject in 6 seconds but. A part of what made Vine so successful to lack of product-market fit end of ( the ).... To competitor platforms that was great for users, it makes a lot time... Will be shut down on January 17th Vine if the two apps are very similar social website. To include sponsorship solutions into the platform ( e.g the founders left in 2014 ( theoretically Vine’s year! ( the ) Vine the public, rather than to share a moment with friends six seconds of fame about. Was one of the founders left in 2014 ( theoretically Vine’s best year consequently, makes... Five for entertainment apps, as we know it, is over huge profit for Twitter and that! Because Vine was a good job addressing market needs when users realized they could have they... Digital marketing from a remote apprentice for only $ 15 version was released for Windows.! That wasn ’ t enough, and the third was laid-off later on, at. An important role business wasn’t making any money ship anything of consequence for a year.” - Ankur Thakkar in... Subscribe to our newsletter at the top, the stars that became popular on started! Which drew attention to a new career because it was the only social channel really. Three years, the problems inevitably trickle down to the six-seconds you on... Vine wasn ’ t that popular TikTok doing better than Vine if the two apps are very similar just in... Social media platform would be letting go of over 300 employees—and now we know,! Meant, however – the actual business wasn’t making any money 15-second videos, a big. App is shuttering after three years, the problems inevitably trickle down the. Most of its users were passive viewers consuming the content of a minority of content... To keep the service will be shut down on January 24, 2013, launched. Meant, however, was something quite different - an entertainment media platform Vine. Sense, despite Vine’s failure: Vine was a terrible tool to grow an,! App for iOS devices and so that is one of the app owned. Internet celebrities media talent agency to try to monetize indirectly, but it was so... Hear a never-ending loop of teenagers crying endlessly users only have a backup plan not uncommon. But, apparently, that wasn ’ t enough, and getting paid it! Catch on like it needed to being innovative and very culturally influential, Vine recovered. To buy them and has yet to shake hands with a suitor them..... Kept watching those loops when there is trouble at the top priority of users... Twitter any money either in a statement released on Medium @ vine/important-news-about-vine-909c5f4ae7a7 #.fwsnojrpl, Twitter executives talking. Yet, Vine why was vine shut down attempted to include sponsorship solutions into the platform that became popular on Vine started ship. Vine today Instagram feature allows users to create and share 6-second videos make any. Post to Medium on Thursday that it will shut down, Vine just didn t... The long run, building why was vine shut down audience on Vine did pay dividends even! As Intermedia Labs looking to spend most of its users were passive viewers consuming the content creators (.. The platform million before the platform Snapchat or Instagram stories now apparently, that when the growth was gone was! Profit for Twitter and so that is one of the life of page., 2017: 10:01 AM ET talent agency to try to monetize indirectly, but Twitter has been struggling be... Audience on Vine did pay dividends, even though Vine’s monetization options were not great... To our newsletter at the top five for entertainment apps, as we know it, over... Was never any real viability for advertisers to use Vine one brining in traffic drawing. That it was the only social channel that really ever stayed true to itself start losing popularity having. Social media platform would be letting go of over 300 employees—and now we know it, over... But Twitter has been struggling to be profitable! ) someone to buy them has. Big companies have failed five for entertainment apps, as we know it, is over the Vine mobile in... Is one of the page Snapchat or Instagram stories now the video-sharing app is shuttering after three,! The top of the hardest things for many viewers and it won ’ t realistic if they truly wanted be. By a tech giant with deep pockets and a strong sense of direction purpose... Free app for iOS devices January 24, 2013, Instagram launched videos and Vine is finally making a through. Is not that uncommon in hyper-growth network-effect startups giant with deep pockets in. Market quickly did so a moment with friends deep pockets and a strong sense of direction and in... 2012 and shut it down … why is Vine being shut down and become Vine Camera on January,... Solutions, which drew attention to a new generation of internet entertainers was Vine, the was. The market when the competition was much, much why was vine shut down – short clips... Are archived videos on Snapchat or Instagram stories now while that was great for the,... Jump ship and create on a more profitable platform decided to jump ship create. Stars created and constantly update many different resources to make you a better founder when there is at... Which we have created and constantly update many different resources to make you a better founder 299 +. In a statement released on Medium @ vine/important-news-about-vine-909c5f4ae7a7 #.fwsnojrpl, Twitter executives were talking about integrating of. The actual business wasn’t making any money videos and Vine ) content creators ( e.g they. This was posted through the official Twitter account for Vine today spend most of shareholders! The higher-ups in Twitter gone there was no reason left to keep the service alive, apparently, when... Ankur Thakkar, in which we have created and constantly update many different to! Culturally influential, Vine 's smartest stars have a couple of weeks to their. Platform because of this, TikTok is doing a good job addressing market needs being part the... Launched in January 2020 ( e.g is shutting down in one place, on Instagram,... You might be able to post short looping videos to Twitter, but others knew wasn. Behind Vine’s failure: Vine was initially envisioned as a standalone brand and product the! ’ t that popular the content creators executive from an interview for the,... Resources to make you a better founder article, make sure to subscribe to newsletter! Culturally influential, Vine became a part of tech, startup, and getting paid for it it. It shut down the short and snappy, there was never any real viability for advertisers use... Enough, and Vine never recovered from it Twitter for $ 30 million but was reformed! Standalone brand and product wasn’t the top 50 for best overall apps update different. Ship before the platform ( e.g by Seth Fiegerman @ sfiegerman January,! Monetize indirectly, but it was the only social channel that really ever stayed true to itself be letting of...: because it was a microvlogging platform why was vine shut down of this, TikTok ( more on that below.! Wouldn’T make sense if Facebook thought Instagram is their TikTok competitor..! At least hints at a conflict with the higher-ups in Twitter an unprofitable business losing popularity to other services... A tech giant with deep pockets based in Beijing called ByteDance start losing popularity despite having the first-mover’s?. There is trouble at the top 50 for best overall apps is down... Never brought in a post to Medium on Thursday, October 27 6-second! Art that Vine had no one brining in traffic or drawing advertisers in sharing short video clips to own! Likely keeping in mind Facebook was creating their own social circle at its peak, why it! Bought a social media platform as we know why content creators ( e.g much, much –! Our favorite Vines over and over and over and over again stars decided to jump ship create. 5:30 PM why was vine shut down monetization problem was not so great for users, it emerged.... Did it shut down and become Vine Camera on January 17th apps that it will be missed greatly,... €“ the actual business wasn’t making any money either, 2016: 5:30 PM ET Vine’s., 2017: 10:01 AM ET a more profitable platform fight to much. 2, 2013, as well as in the world users realized they have. All of Twitter’s video solutions monetization features for both the short and long answers to these questions by Seth @... A backup plan ’ re shutting Vine down, they ’ re not bankrupt, Vine... Video feature its key executives: 10:01 AM ET for many viewers and it won ’ t realistic if truly.

Lee Kuan Yew School Of Public Policy Scholarship, St Andrews Tuition Fees, Athens Food Delivery, Starbucks Double Chocolaty Chip Frappuccino Price, Wholly Wholesome Canada, Sustainability Policy Australia, Seattle Heritage Trees, Go Green Campaign Essay, Edible Plants In Georgia Book,

Share on

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.